Waves and power generation
The materials required for this science fair project:
- a 5 meter long container (width 1 meter, depth 1 meter)
- a wave making device (with a turning wheel and wooden plank that acts as a rotating oar/paddle)
- 2 copper wire wound coils, 1000 turns each
- 1 strong magnet
- 1 metal plate (1 meter in length, 5 cm in width and 0.5 mm in thickness)
- 2 pieces of wood ( 1 meter and 0.5 meter in length)
- hammer and nails
- 1 wooden raft
- electric wires
- 2 rectifiers with capacitors
- tap water to fill the tank
- a digital voltmeter
- 1 masking tape
- an assistant
1. For this science fair project, the independent variable is the height of the wave and the wave cycle period. The dependent variable is the voltage induced in the coils. This is determined by measuring the voltage using a digital voltmeter. The constants (control variables) are the strength of the magnet, the turns in the coil, the length of the metal plate, the depth of the water and the size of the raft.
2. The 5 meter long tank is filled with water and the wave generator is installed in the tank as shown in figure 1 below. By turning the wheel, the motion produced by the wooden plank will create waves. The cycle of the waves can be controlled by the speed at which the wheel turns. The amplitude of the wave can be increased or reduced by adjusting the wooden plank.
3. A wooden raft is prepared by nailing the 2 pieces of wood in a T-shape. The meter long piece of wood is placed vertically and the 0.5 meter piece of wood is placed horizontal. The coil is affixed to the wood using masking tape as shown in figure 1.
4. The magnet is mounted on the tip of the metal plate with the masking tape. The bottom of the metal plate is fixed to the raft. They are arranged as shown in figure 1. The swinging of the metal plate should cause the magnet to move towards the center of the coil and induce a voltage/current in the coil. .
5. Both coils are connected to the diode and capacitor rectifier. The DC voltage is measured at the output of the rectifier.
6. The waves are generated at 1 cycle per second (1 Hertz) and 2 cycles per second (2 Hertz) at wave amplitudes of 10 cm, 20 cm, 30 cm and 40 cm. The voltage generated is measured and recorded in the table below.
Basic safety requirements