# All Science Fair Projects

## The Odds of Being You: A zoomonster from planet Planktonia

### Procedure

For this science fair project, let's put on our jet packs and head to the planet "Planktonia" to perform some breeding experiments. Students, heed this warning: keep your breathing mask on at all times, and please, do not swim in the water!!

1. Use the key provided ("Zoomonsters of planet Planktonia") to design your "zoomonster". To do this you are going to perform 10 coin tosses, one for each of the traits described by the key. If you get heads, you will choose the dominant trait under the heads column. If you get tails, you will choose the recessive trait under the tails column. As you perform the coin tosses, make a list of the traits that you get with each toss.
2. You will use the list of traits that you made in step 1 to draw your zoomonster. Because there are ten traits each with two alleles, there are many possible outcomes for your zoomonster. Examples of what your zoomonster might look like are provided.
3. Once you have designed your zoomonster, pair up with a friend who has designed his or her own zoomonster. If you are doing this activity alone, design two zoomonsters separately by following steps 1 and 2 twice.
4. Now you are going to calculate the probability of getting certain phenotypes with your zoomonster pairing. The first step is to use the key to determine the genotypes of the two zoomonsters. The genotype is the sequence of letters used to represent the phenotypes of your zoomonsters. Refer to the table provided for the phenotypes and their corresponding genotypes. You may notice that the dominant traits have two possible genotypes, homozygous dominant (AA) or heterozygous (Aa). To simplify, you are going to choose the homozygous dominant genotype.
5. Once you have determined your zoomonster's genotype, pick 4 traits that you will make predictions about using a punnett square for each trait separately. For example, you can choose body shape, antenna type, bioluminescence and appendage type. You will make four punnett squares, one for each of your four chosen traits. Refer to the example provided for assistance with setting up a punnett square.

As an example, let's say you have chosen to make predictions about possible antenna types in the offspring given your zoomonster pairing. Your zoomonster has whip antenna (genotype dd), while your partner's zoomonster has bugle antenna (genotype DD). To predict the genotype of the offspring, set your punnett square up like this:

 Alleles from the father (bugle antenna) D D Alleles from the mother (whip antenna) d Dd Dd d Dd Dd

### Do not swim in the water and please keep your breathing mask on at all times!!

 Trait Heads (Dominant) Tails (Recessive) Body shape Sphere Bell Body type Chitinous exoskeleton Gelatinous Appendage type Cilia Tentacles Antennae type Bugle Whip Antennae # One Two Eyespot # One Two Eyespot color Red Green Locomotion Spiraling Jet propulsion Behavior Colonial Solitary Bioluminescence Yes No

Table 1. Coin toss traits.

 Dominant Recessive Trait Allele Genotype Phenotype Genotype Phenotype Body shape A,a AA, Aa Sphere aa Bell Body type B,b BB, Bb Chitinous exoskeleton bb Gelatinous Appendage type C,c CC, Cc Cilia cc Tentacles Antennae type D,d DD, Dd Bugle dd Whip Antennae # E,e EE, Ee One ee Two Eyespot # F,f FF, Ff One ff Two Eyespot color G,g GG, Gg Red gg Green Locomotion H,h HH, Hh Spiraling hh Jet propulsion Behavior I,i II, Ii Colonial ii Solitary Bioluminescence J,j JJ, Jj Yes jj No

Table 2. Genotype key.

You will notice that the dominant traits have two possible genotypes: a homozygous dominant (AA) and a heterozygous (Aa). To simplify, you are going to use the homozygous dominant genotype. The genotype for a zoomonster with the traits bell, gelatinous, cilia, one bugle antenna, two red eyespots, spiraling, solitary and non-bioluminescent is: aa/bb/CC /DD/ff/GG/HH/ii/jj

Figure 1. Some examples of zoomonsters

Figure 2. Zoomonster traits, part 1

Figure 3. Zoomonster traits, part 2

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Complexity level:
7
Project cost (\$):
Time required:
The student needs to perform coin tosses and draw a creature using a key.
Material availability:
You will need some pennies, paper and colored pencils - all of these are easily found at home.
Safety concerns: