### Saved science fair projects:

This is a saved copy of the relevant third party website. We save only the first page of every project because we've found that the third party sites are often temporarily down. We do not save all pages of the project because copyright belongs to the third party author.

## 2004 IJAS State Exposition

PROJECT TITLE Parachutes: Comparative Analysis of Three Designs

The purpose of this experiment was to understand how the design of a parachute affects the speed and accuracy of its descent. The three designs chosen for this experiment were the da Vinci parachute, the Flat Circle parachute, and the Basic Dome parachute. The da Vinci parachute is constructed of four triangles with stiff edges. The Flat Circle design is made from a cloth circle. The Basic Dome design is a cloth dome constructed of pie shaped panels and is the design most commonly used today. The hypothesis was that the Basic Dome design would descend the slowest and with the most accuracy.

To complete the experiment, the parachutes were designed so the surface area of each canopy was the same. Then, the parachutes were cut and sewn together according the diagrams for each canopy. Finally, the three fully constructed parachutes were dropped from a height of 816 centimeters. For each trial, the descents were videotaped and timed. Finally, the results were analyzed.

The parachutes' performance differed from the hypothesis. The Flat Circle canopy performed the best, with the slowest average descent speed of 2.79 seconds and closest average distance from the target of 127.67 centimeters. The Basic Dome canopy performed the second best and the da Vinci canopy came in third.

PROJECT TITLE: Which Angle of Attack Generates the Most Lift?

Purpose - Does an airfoil (wing) of an airplane produce more UR at a higher angle of attack or a lower angle of attack?

Procedure - Step 1) Set up 'blower and airfoil on a sturdy table. Step 2) Plug in the blower. Step 3) Use a level to inspect the display table to ensure it is reasonably level Step 4) Check that the area downwind of the blower is clear of loose objects. Step 5) Carefully measure the scale/airfoil assembly's distance from the wood base of the wind tunnel to be 184 mm Step 6) Make sure blower switch is in the "off' position. Then, plug in the unit Step 7) Set the angle of attack of the airfoil to zero degree on the protractor. Step 8) Turn on the digital scale, calibrate, and select grams for the unit of measurement. To calibrate the scale, press the "calibrateÓ button. Step 9) put on safety glasses and earplugs. Step 10) Turn on the blower and calibrate the airfoil to read as close to 0 g of lift as possible and note any adjustments, if any, at the pointer. To calibrate the airfoil, point the needle to the 0 mark on the protractor. Then, turn on the blower for a few brief seconds and make sure that the scale's reading is within 5 grams of 0. If the reading is more than 5 grams or less than .5 grams, bend the needle in the appropriate direction and repeat the above procedure. Step 11) Complete ten fifteen-second tests for increment angles of five degrees until there is no change in measurement of the coefficient of lift (cl). Step 12) Turn off and re-calibrate the scale before each test Step 13) When the scale indication of max cl is reached; decrease the angle of attack by one degree. Complete ten tests for this degree using the previously applied parameters. The highest digital reading on the scale is indicative that this angle of attack produces the most lift before a stall occurs.

Conclusion - The experimenter concludes that as the angle of attack of an airfoil is increased, the coefficient of lift is also increased. This is true until the critical angle of attack is reached and above which the airfoil no longer produces lift.  When this occurs the airfoil stalls. The most lift on the symmetrical airfoil is produced at an angle of attack of nineteen degrees.

PROJECT TITLE: American Airfoil

The purpose of this experiment was to see how different airfoils react under varying conditions. The variables tested include camber and angle of attack. We kept constant the thickness of the wing and the wind speed. The project was also designed to bestow a better understanding of aeronautics and physics on us. The project allowed for an indulgence in the principles of physics and of flying. In addition, the intent of the project was to determine which factors affected Bernoulli's principle. We also wanted to compare theoretical lift with respect to the Thin Airfoil Theory to our experimental data to determine coefficient of lift.

First, a wind tunnel was created using the motor from a tiller, two fans, and wood. An anemometer was used to verify the wind speed that the fans were producing. Next, three ribs in the shape of each airfoil were cut out of a piece of wood using a jigsaw and sandpaper. These wings were then cover with aluminum sheet metal and secured using staples and super-glue. Each wing was suspended and was tested using a computer program that determines force. Each airfoil was tested three times per angle at angles of 00, 50, 100, and 15'.

We concluded that angle of attack and camber do affect the amount of lift created by a Joukowsky airfoil. This, in turn, shows that angle of attack and camber consequently affect Bernoulli's principle. We found lift does increase, then decrease similarly to a bell curve, with an increase in camber of the airfoil. Also, we found that lift increases linearly with respect to angle of attack. Our data proves that you can't use the Thin Airfoil Theory in all situations because it is based on ideal conditions and doesn't consider the affect of camber on lift. It also doesn't consider that as the wing nears its stall angle, it becomes inefficient and the flow of air is not directed over the airfoil.

PROJECT TITLE The Effect of Telescope Aperture Size on the Brightness of the Viewed Object

The purpose of my experiment was to investigate the effect of telescope aperture size on the brightness of the viewed object (the image). My hypothesis was that the smaller the aperture size, the dimmer will be the viewed object.

I connected a camera to the eyepiece of a telescope and I took pictures of the moon with different telescope aperture diameters (70 mm, 60 mm, 40 mm, 35 mm, 21 mm, 10 mm). Then, I measured the intensity (brightness) and the standard deviation of the region of interest of the moon for each picture. I obtained the intensity and standard deviation for each picture using the "Photoshop" software on a computer. I did five trials.

I proved my hypothesis to be valid. As the telescope's aperture decreased, the intensity of the moon decreased. When the aperture size was small, less light could enter the aperture and that made the image dimmer and noisier. My standard deviations were small and so my results are reproducible.

PROJECT TITLE Applying Newton's Laws: Measuring the Density of Saturn

Purpose- To show that the mass and density of Saturn can be determined from the orbital parameters of its satellite, Titan, when inserted into an orbital mechanics formula derived from Newton's 2nd Law of Motion and Newton's Law of Gravitation.

Procedure- Images of Saturn and its moons were collected at Bell Observatory in Western Kentucky over a 20-night period. The position of Titan was measured in the images. Titan's orbital period (in hours) and radius (in radians) was determined by fitting a model sinc function to the data. Titan's orbital radius was then converted to meters, after finding the distance to Saturn in meters and applying the small angle approximation. Saturn's mass in grams was then calculated by plugging Titan's parameters into an orbital mechanics equation based on Newton's Laws. Saturn's radius, R, in pixels, was measured directly in one of the images, converted to radians, and converted again to centimeters. The density of Saturn was calculated by dividing the mass of Saturn in grams by the formula for the volume of a sphere,.4/3 ¹R3, to obtain 0.672 gm/cm3.

Conclusion- Saturn's average density is 0.672 gm/cm3, which is less than that of water, Igm/cm3.

PROJECT TITLE: Finding Light Curves of Blazars MRK 421 and 0509+056

Blazars are a type of active galactic nuclei. At short wavelengths (high energy) the brightness of blazars is known to vary on short timescales. However, variance of blazars is not well studied in the visual part of the spectrum. The purpose of this research is to investigate the brightnesses of the blazars MRK 421 and 0509+056 and show that they vary.

Observations were taken over a three-month period from the Kitt Peak 0.9-meter telescope and IDL (Interactive Data Language) was used to remove imperfections from the images and obtain the relative brightness of the blazars.

Light curves were obtained for both blazars showing that they vary on short timescales in the visual spectrum over the three-month period.

PROJECT TITLE: The Effect of Herbs on Short-term Memory

The purpose of this experiment is to discover the effect of herbs' scents on short-term memory. The experimenter will test which herb, basil, ginkgo, ginseng, or rosemary, best improves memory during a learning exercise.

Prepare 5 sets of memory sheets with 20 different numbers on each sheet. Measure out 4 grams of each herb and coffee. Place each measured amount in a separate snack bag. Distribute memory and answer sheets. Allow students 45 seconds to memorize the numbers. Give the students 30 seconds to record the numbers memorized on the first answer sheet. Repeat the memory exercise for each herb. Between herb tests, instruct students to gently inhale coffee's scent for 15 seconds. Record observations.

The results of the experiment showed that herbs' scents did not considerably improve students' memory. The average quantity of numbers recalled differed by 0.2 numbers or less. Rosemary did the best averaging 7.28 (±2.5) numbers recalled. Ginseng averaged 7.26 (-+2.5), basil averaged 7.18 (±2.5), and ginkgo averaged 7.08 (±2.75) numbers recalled. Vihen standard deviation was taken into account, ginkgo had a range from 4.33 to 9.83, giving it the lowest and highest values. One's short-term memory can generally hold five to nine items at a time, which may have caused the results.

Project Name: The Effects of Complex Mental Tasks on Visual Recognition Skills

The effect of complex mental tasks on visual recognition was investigated. Twenty-five different subjects were subjected to each of three conditions while recognizing light patterns. The type of task performed while recognizing lights was the independent variable. The dependent variable, the number of correctly identified lights, was measured.

A subject looked into a black box. In the box were eight different lights, wired to switches and a timer so they could be individually flashed. The subject viewed the lights, and responded by saying which lights were flashed. While this was happening, they also were in one of three conditions-. no music, music, and oral exam. During no music, the subject identified which lights were flashed. During music, a subject listened to a pre- recorded tape of music while identifying which lights were flashed. During the oral exam, the subject identified the sixth letter of every word they heard on a pre-recorded tape while identifying which lights were flashed. All subjects were subjected to all three conditions in an order randomized for each subject. The scores were recorded as two, one, or zero, according to the number of lights identified correctly.

The effect of complex tasks on visual recognition was studied. The hypothesis was that an oral exam would diminish the ability to correctly identify signals. The hypothesis was supported. The subjects, on average, scored the lowest during the oral exam. This was because the subjects were distracted from their main task of visual recognition by the exam.

PROJECT TITLE: Cellular Senses

Purpose: The purpose of this experiment is to evaluate different gendered and aged drivers during a road test, with and without the use of cell phones, to see if their performance is influenced by the use of a cell phone while driving and to see if gender or age somehow correlates with the level to which they are influenced by this variable.

First, create an accurate if not exact copy of the state drivers test for evaluation purposes and a route that contains enough obstacles to challenge a driverÕs performance. Next, recruit licensed volunteers. Enter the vehicle with a driver. Proceed by instructing the driver to navigate through the obstacles without specifying how. Evaluate their performance. Repeat the sequence with each new test subject.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the hypothesis was correct. On average, the females overall were more influenced by the use of a cell phone while driving then the males, the younger drivers were more influenced then the older drivers, and every driver was ultimately affected.

PROJECT TITLE: GPS Navigation Means of Travel For The Blind

Purpose: In modem society independent travel is a prerequisite for both, success in education and employment. Navigation for the Visually impaired not only involves finding a safe route for travel but landmarks for orientation as well. This experiment examined the effectiveness of satellite navigation systems when used to help the blind navigate.

Procedure: A satellite navigational tool was adapted for the blind using a Global Positioning System (GPS) along with a compact flash adapter and a personal digital assistant (PDA). An obstacle course was created and a comparison was made using memorized directions to directions given by the navigation system, in which the errors made and the course completion time of eighteen individuals subjected through the course was measured and analyzed.

Conclusion: It was concluded that the GPS navigational tool adapted for the blind helped the blind navigate more efficiently in comparison to their conventional techniques. The mean errors committed with the navigational tool were 1.67 with a mean completion time of 23.42 minutes; as compared to the 3.44 mean errors committed with a mean completion time of 33.07 minutes without the navigational tool, thus saving 1.77 errors and 9.65 minutes on the course.

PROJECT TITLE: Apoptosis Is Increased In a Diabetic Model of Nephropathy, the BB/WOR Rat

Purpose: These experiments were chosen to answer the questions: 1. Does kidney damage occur in the diabetic kidney by apoptosis (programmed cell death)? 2. Do the number of cells undergoing apoptosis differ between diabetic and diabetes-resistant kidneys? 3. How much are diabetic kidneys affected by apoptosis?

Procedure: The TUNEL assay (Chemicon Apoptosis Kit) was used to measure apoptosis in diabetes-resistant (control) and diabetic BB/WOR rat kidneys. Three control and three diabetic BB/WOR rat kidneys were used for this experiment. Apoptotic cells appear fluorescent (green) under a microscope. All cells were stained red for comparison. Pictures were taken of the slides under the fluorescent microscope. The number of apoptotic cells and the total number of cells were counted by the exhibitor using the Excel program. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the p-value between the control and diabetic kidneys.

Conclusion: The results show that apoptosis is significantly higher in diabetic kidneys than in control kidneys. The p-value is 0.007,which is less than 0.05. The presence of apoptosis in diabetic kidneys could explain why people with diabetes develop diabetic nephropathy.

PROJECT TITLE: Delay Decay the Natron Way

This experiment determines what salt or preservative will preserve a chicken leg best. Alex's interest in and knowledge of Egyptology would benefit the project.

First, gather materials (listed later). Second, mass a trial group of 5 chicken legs. Then, place one leg in a bag along with 4.2 kg NaCl. Repeat with 4.2kg NaHC03 and 4.2kg water softening salt (w.s.s.). Make 4.2 kg natron substitute by mixing 2.1 kg NaCl and 2.1 kg baking soda. Place 4.2 kg natron substitute in one bag with a chicken. Place 1 leg in a bag with no additives (control). Mass the chickens after they are removed from the bag and the preservative is removed at 72-hour intervals until 432 hours have passed. Repeat the trial group 14 more times. Independent variable is type of preservative. Dependent variable is mass of legs. Constants are provider of legs, use of only chicken legs, scale, temperature that chicken is kept and amounts of each preservative in each bag.

Natron preserved the best. Chickens treated with natron lost an average 29.3% of mass; NaCl chickens lost 26. 1 %; w.s.s. subjects lost 17.6%; NaHC03 chickens lost 12.2; and the control group lost an average of 10.6%.

PROJECT TITLE: Gene Survival in Breast Cancer hinders Chemosensitivity

Purpose: Activation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) results in diverse physiological effects depending on cell type. For example, glucocorticoids (GC) cause apoptosis in lymphocytes but can rescue mammary epithelial cells (MECS) from growth factor withdrawal-induced programmed cell death. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that dexamethasone and cisplatin co-treatment inhibits chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in a human lung cancer xenograft model. However, the molecular mechanisms of GR-mediated epithelial cell survival remain poorly understood.

Procedure: In this study, a genome-wide exploration of genes regulated directly by the GR was performed using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays, and a set of consistently up- and down- regulated genes was identified. Several of the genes induced 30 minutes following GR activation in MECs were found to encode proteins that function in cell survival signaling pathways. Interestingly, the majority of these genes do not overlap with genes that have been previously identified as regulated by GCs.

Conclusion: The data suggest that GR activation in breast cancer cells regulates survival signaling pathways through direct transactivation of genes encoding proteins that influence susceptibility to apoptosis. Given the widespread administration of dexamethasone prior to cancer chemotherapy, understanding GR-induced survival mechanisms are essential for achieving optimal therapeutic responses.

PROJECT TITLE: Identification of JNK Isoforms in MDCK cells

Purpose: Collective Cell Sheet Migration is important to the majority of cell movements in vivo. Many processes in multi-cellular animals require cells to move as coordinated groups, such as embryonic development, and metastasis of cancers. Previous studies suggest that the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNY,) dependent pathways are essential in cell sheet migration. Therefore, Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Epithelial (MDCK) cell is chosen as a model to study the functions of JNK isoforms. This study is designed to identify the JNK isoforms present in MDCK cells--an important step in determining the exact roles of JNKs in cell sheet migrations in general.

Conclusion: Through RT-PCR, seven JNK isoforms' mRNA were identified to be present in MDCK cells. Western Blot Analysis confirmed this finding by identifying the proteins of these isoforms. These results can contribute to future studies of JNK isoforms and can lead to possible discoveries of new ways to regulate cell-motility-related diseases such as asthma and cancers.

PROJECT TITLE: Effectiveness of Black Walnut as a Natural Herbicide for Corn and Soybean Production: Phase II

The purpose of this experiment was to determine the most effective concentration of allelochemicals in black walnut as a natural herbicide for corn and soybean production. It was hypothesized that if Eastern black nightshade, corn, and soybean seeds were germinated using water with black walnut extracts compared to distilled water then the Eastern black nightshade germination would be affected. It was also hypothesized that as the rate increased, the germination of Eastern black nightshade would decrease accordingly. Finally, it was hypothesized that if the same amount was applied to corn and soybeans, the germination would not be affected.

Black walnut hulls were crushed and sieved. 100 grams of crushed black walnut were added to 1,000 milliliters of distilled water and allowed to sit for twenty-four hours. The solution was then strained and diluted with distilled water to create 100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, and 5% concentrations.

After the experiment was completed the following conclusions were formed: black walnut extract concentrations of 5%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% reduced germination rates of Eastern black nightshade by 15%,29%,61%, 61%, and 76%, respectively. In both corn and soybeans, the concentration of black walnut extract had no effect on germination.

PROJECT TITLE: Acid Rain and the Effect on the growth of Golden Pothos

Purpose: To determine what effect acid rain has on the growth of Golden Pothos plant.

Procedure:

1. Gather together 12 shoots of the Golden Pothos plant, 12 tumblers, 4 jars, HCl (O.IN), and tap water.

2. Take each individual jar and pH the water to the following levels-, 7, 5.5, 3.5, and 2.5.

3. Divide each jar among three tumblers.

4. Place a cutting of the Golden Pothos in each tumbler.

5. Observe and record the shoot length for next 9 weeks.

Conclusion: The plant grew best in the water with pH level of 5.5, not 7. The plants that were placed in the lower acidity levels were actually able to tolerate the acid for a span of 2-4 weeks. If the rain results in pH less than the level 5.5, then the Golden Pothos plants will most likely die. If the Acid rain results in 5.5 or higher, then the plants will grow, It confirms further published observations that any hydroponic plant prefers an acidity level around 5.5.

PROJECT TITLE: Where Corn Grows

The purpose of this experiment is to determine which state soil grows corn the best.

The state soil for each state will be used to determine the best corn growing state. I hypothesized that Washington's state soil will grow corn the best due to its continuous high rankings for yield over the last several years.

To perform the test, I gathered samples by sending letters to each state National Resources Conservation Service requesting a one-gallon sample of each state's soil. After obtaining the samples I performed three separate growth tests with two plants in a four-inch pot for each soil sample received. I then measured the leaf collar, height, and biomass of each plant.

I concluded that the state with the best state soil for growing corn is Indiana. Indiana was the only state to have an average biomass over 3 g. So, Indiana has the best soil, given the local conditions. Other environmental factors will effect how well the soil can grow corn in its natural environment.

PROJECT TITLE: How Purified Water Affect the Growth of Corn

PURPOSE:

The purpose of this experiment was to explore the effects of nutrients in water on plant emergence and growth and to determine whether natural spring waters such as Evian¨) and Ice Mountain¨) will make plants germinate more quickly and grow to be larger than plants that are watered with tap water or distilled water.

PROCEDURE:

One hundred twenty corn seeds were divided evenly between four shallow dishes - one filled with tap water, one filled with distilled water, one filled with Ice Mountain Natural Spring Water¨) and the other filled with Evian Natural Spring Water¨). After two days of soaking, to encourage germination, the seeds were planted into sand in forty separate Styrofoam cups and placed in a sunroom. Each cup was watered every other day with the specific water type designated for that group of seeds. Changes in emergence time, growth, color, and root development were recorded for a thirty-day testing period. Every seven days, test strips were used to measure the amount of chlorine in all four types of waters. Cups were rotated every week to insure the same amount of sunlight for each plant.

CONCLUSION:

The hypothesis was correct because the data showed that corn plants watered with Evian Natural Spring Water¨ and Ice Mountain Natural Spring Water¨ grew to be taller then the corn plants watered with ordinary tap water or distilled water. Evian¨ watered plants grew to an average height of 18.86 centimeters and Ice Mountain¨ watered plants grew to an average height of 15.77 centimeters. Tap watered plants only grew to an average height of 12.28 centimeters while the distilled grew to an average height of 9.66 centimeters. Using sand as opposed to soil did eliminate the possibility for extra nutrients within the soil to be used by the plants as opposed to those given by the waters.

PROJECT TITLE: Organically Groovy Natural Dyes

The purpose of my experiment was to determine which vegetable (red onions, red cabbage, beets, spinach, kale, or carrots) would produce the most colorfast dye on wool.

I made dye from each of the different vegetables and dyed three skeins of wool yarn in each different dye. After the skeins had dried, I rinsed one skein thoroughly and washed one skein with mild detergent. I compared the color of these two skeins to the unwashed skein. The vegetable whose dye faded least was the most colorfast dye.

My hypothesis that red cabbage would be the most colorfast dye was not supported by my data. The most colorfast dye was produced by red onions; red cabbage came in second; beets and kale had the same results and came in third; carrots came in fourth, and spinach produced the least colorfast dye.

PROJECT TITLE: What is the Effect of Different Carbohydrates on Yeast Fermentation?

Purpose: The purpose of this experiment is to determine the effect of different carbohydrates on the amount of C02 produced in yeast fermentation. If yeast can break down table sugar, a disaccharide, into two molecules of monosaccharides (D-glucose and D-fructose), and ferment those monosaccharides, then it can ferment other disaccharides and monosaccharides.

Procedures: The independent variable is the type of carbohydrate used. The dependent variable is the amount Of C02 generated. Table sugar was used to find the optimum pH and temperature. Based on their C02 Formed Versus Time graph curve shape, pH 6.5 and 37.5 0C were chosen for the study. The carbohydrate was dissolved in water and pH adjusted to 6.5. Yeast was added to the solution and heated to 37.50C. The C02 formed was collected in an inverted volumetric cylinder filled with water. The volume of C02 formed by different carbohydrates was compared.

Conclusion: The pH changed continuously during the fermentation reaction. Yeast is capable of fermenting at wide range of temperatures (room to 500C) and pH levels (4.0 to 8.5). Yeast fermented D-sucrose, D-fructose, D-maltose and D-glucose. D-galactose, D-cellobiose, D-melibiose and D-lactose produced negligible amounts of C02.  Yeast demonstrated substrate structure specificity to ferment carbohydrates that have structures similar to D-sucrose.

PROJECT TITLE: Don't Bust My Bubble!

Purpose: The purpose of this project was to determine the effect of adding glycerin to the bubble solution on the size of the bubble.

Procedure: The procedure involved creating a bubble solution with 15 parts distilled water, I part Dawn dish detergent, and 0 parts glycerin, the control. Four additional solutions were mixed varying the amount of glycerin, the independent variable. Ten bubbles were blown from each solution. The diameters of the popped bubbles were measured. This procedure was repeated in three separate trials.

Conclusion: Although trial one did not support the hypothesis that the greatest concentration of glycerin produces the largest bubble, trials two and three did support that conclusion. The inconsistent results shown in trial one are partially attributable to human error in the blowing technique. Blowing too hard or with the wand too close to the mouth created lots of smaller bubbles that could not be measured. Once the blowing technique was perfected, with a slow, steady stream of air, the bubbles were easier to capture and measure, and the results more closely represented the expected results. Future projects may include additional trials to more conclusively support the hypothesis.

PROJECT TITLE:  Synthesis and Oxidative Transformations Using Novel Water-Soluble Hypervalent     Iodine Reagents

Purpose: The growing demand for eco-friendly chemical processes and reagents prompted the experimenter to investigate the possibility of synthesizing water-soluble derivatives of commonly used hypervalent iodine oxidizing agents to be used as chemoselective oxidants in water and aqueous media. Following synthesis of the reagent, oxidative transformations of various organic substrates using the reagent in water will be performed. Reaction mechanisms will be proposed that incorporate the involvement of water and any selectivity that the reagent exhibits in its reactions. Physical organic chemistry techniques will be used to verify the proposed mechanisms.

Procedure: A novel water-soluble derivative of the well-known o-iodoxybenzoic acid (IBX) was synthesized in five steps beginning with commercially available 3-nitropthalic acid. The reagent was used for the oxidation of a variety of benzylic/allylic and non-benzylic substrates in water. A reaction mechanism involving an enthalpically favored H-abstraction, followed by a single electron transfer (SET) step was proposed for the oxidation of benzylic/allylic alcohols and benzyl ethers.  Hammett correlation studies were performed by the experimenter to support the proposed mechanism.

Conclusions: The synthesis of the novel reagent can be achieved in five steps with an overall yield of 73%. The reagent exhibits strong selectivity in its reactions, performed in aqueous systems, towards benz)dlc/allylic alcohols as well as benzyl ethers. Moreover, the proposed reaction mechanism incorporates the selectivity of the reagent towards berizylic/allylic substrates and the involvement of water in the reactions. Hammett correlation studies indicate p= -0.229, strongly supporting the radical-based mechanism.

PROJECT TITLE: Does the Type of Information in a File (on a CD) Affect the Data Transfer Rate?

Purpose: Does the type of information in a file (on a CD) affect the data transfer rate? If I test text, graphic, and music file transfer rate, then the text will transfer the fastest, followed by music, then graphics.

Procedure: Create three, 400 MB CD-RW's, one of which is text, one of which is music and one of which is graphics. Transfer the files from the CD to the hard drive of the computer. Start timing when the transfer box appears and stop timing when the box closes. Run 10 trials for each CD. Between every trial remove the previously transferred file, run disk cleanup and disk defragmentation.

Conclusion: The mean time to transfer for the test file was 5:43.22; the mean time for the music file to transfer was 5:56.77; the mean time for the graphics file to transfer was 5:43.26. The text file had a file extension of DOC; the music file had the file extension MP3; and the graphic file had the file extension JPEG. Based on the mean values of the time that it took for each file type to transfer, my hypothesis was not supported.

Purpose - The purpose of this project is to investigate which kinds of passwords are most secure. Based on the literature that I read I hypothesize that passwords that are longer and contain symbols, spaces, capital letters, and numbers will be the most effective.

Procedure - First I asked 4 people to create 84 different passwords, 16 passwords of 6 different types. The different types were 1-4 character words, 5-8 character words, 3 character letter and number combinations, 4 character letter and number combinations, 3 character letter/number/symbol combinations, and 4 character letter/number/symbol combinations. Each of the passwords was used to protect a Word document file. Next I used Advanced Word 2000 Password Recovery, a password cracking program, to try to crack each of the passwords on the Word files. Then I recorded the time it took to crack each password.

Conclusion - This study demonstrated that whenever a person is trying to keep something safe with a password, they need to choose the password carefully. I accepted my hypothesis that passwords that were longer and contained symbols, letters, and numbers would be the most effective. My results showed that my original hypothesis was correct. Thus the most randomly generated passwords worked the best while English dictionary words worked the worst. This shows that when a person is trying to protect themselves, they should try to use the most obscure password possible. Even using roots of easily guessed words can be harmful. If a hacker is able to guess part of the password, they can use it as a pin in the cracking program, thus allowing for a huge decrease in the amount of time needed to complete the crack. If people really want to protect themselves, they should try to use the most long and complicated password that they can remember.

PROJECT TITLE: Increased Computer Performance through Overclocking

Computers are an essential element of life today. Computer performance can be increased through a process known as overclocking, providing results once only obtainable through purchasing new components. The exhibitors intend to prove that overclocking is an effective way to increase the performance of one's computer.

To begin, the exhibitors placed an overclocking strip on the back of the processor to unlock the multiplier. Then, through changing the multiplier and FSB in the BIOS, the exhibitors were able to increase the performance of the computer. Testing then took place, using programs such as Prime95, PCMark, Sisoft Sandra, and PiCalc. Because the exhibitors were able to decrease the multiplier, they were able to increase the FSB beyond normal limitations and increase performance even more.

The exhibitors found that through decreasing the multiplier and increasing the FSB, performance increased with each repetition. Scores increased with each series of tests, validating our original hypothesis. The testing proved that overclocking is an efficient way to increase computer performance while still promoting system stability.

PROJECT TITLE: LIVE IT UP!

Purpose: The purpose of the experiment is to test six different solutions to see which will help preserve carnations the longest.

Procedure: Label the six containers with the substances that will be used. Fill each container with 900 mL of water. Add 5 g of the right preservative to the respective jars. Mix the solutions. Measure 600 mL of each solution from each jar and pour it into each respective vase. Prepare flowers making sure each flower measures 34 cm long. Place five carnations in each vase. On day 10, stir leftover solutions in each jar and pour the liquids into the respective vases. Observe and record daily observations.

Conclusion: As a result, the florist powder did the best in preserving the carnations the longest period of time. Also, as a result, sugar did the worst in preserving the carnations. Based on research, if thirty carnations are put into six separate vases, one with plain water and five with solutions of natural sugar, substitute sugar, herb sugar, florist powder, and bleach, each dissolved in water, then substitute sugar will help preserve the carnations the longest. The hypothesis was proven incorrect.

PROJECT TITLE: Got Protein?

Purpose: Which brand of skim milk: Dean's, Lucerne, Nancy Martin, Friendly Farms, or Oberweis, contains the most protein?

Procedure: Gather the materials. Put the milk and vinegar into cups and get six pipettes. Weigh the test tubes and pipettes so later their weight can be removed to find the substances true weight. Put 2.3 grams of a brand of milk into three test tubes. Repeat this process so that there are 15 test tubes filled with 2.3 grams of milk. There should be 3 tubes for each brand of milk. Add .5 grams of vinegar to each tube. When all of the test tubes have been filled with the substances put them in the centrifuge. Spin them for four minutes at 3000 revolutions per minute. Then, pour out the remaining solution so the protein is left. Weigh and record the amount of protein.

Conclusion: Lucerne skim milk had the most protein, an average of .73 grams, so the hypothesis was proved wrong. Dean's milk had an average of .7 grams, followed by Oberweis with .63 grams and Nancy Martin with .53 grams. Friendly Farms only had .46 grams. The brand of milk with the most amount of protein was Lucerne.

PROJECT TITLE: The Inactivation of E. coli 0157:H7 in Simulated Gastric Fluid by Antacids

Purpose:: The purpose of this experiment is to determine the effects that antacids will have on E. coli bacteria in apple sauce in the presence of hydrochloric acid.

Procedure This experiment is started by first rehydrating the cultures of E. coli bacteria. Next,56.7 grams of applesauce are transferred into separate bags. Half a milliliter of E. coli bacteria, ten milliliters of an antacid, and three-fourths milliliter of hydrochloric acid are added to each bag. The bags are then "stomached" to simulate how our stomach would pommel the food. The samples are then plated onto Tryptic Soy Agar plates and the colonies of bacteria are counted. This data is entered into Excel spreadsheets and the graphs are analyzed.

Conclusion: By analyzing the graphs, one can conclude that Riopan worked the best out of the three antacids to inhibit E. coli growth. Also, the inhibition of E. coli was greater as the time the bacteria were allowed to react with the antacid increased.

PROJECT TITLE: Emi Clay

PURPOSE

The purpose of this project was to determine whether Emi Clay would serve as a functional clay body for pottery. To assist in this examination, seven different commercial clay bodies, Redart, Ball Clay, Goldart, Kaolin EPK, Harbison Walker, Hawthorn Bond, and Blackbird, were tested and compared. All test tiles were fired at various temperatures and tested for plasticity, shrinkage, porosity, and durability (tensile strength). It was hypothesized that Emi Clay would require the most amount of water to become plastic, and when fired in Cone 8 it would have the least amount of shrinkage, the least amount of water gained, and would be strong enough to use for pottery.

PROCEDURE

Emi Clay was dug up from a lake and made into workable clay by adding water. This plasticity test was done to the other commercial clays. Throughout the experiment the color of the clay was taken into account. 48 test tiles were made, with a 10 cm line, and fired in an electric kiln at various temperatures. A shrinkage test was performed and the 48 tiles were then separated into two groups, 24 tiles in each, to perform the porosity test and the durability/ tensile strength test.

CONCLUSION

The hypothesis was partially rejected. Emi Clay did require a large amount of water to form a workable consistency, yet had the highest amount of shrinkage compared to other clays fired at this temperature. It gained a very low amount of water during the porosity test and was quite strong. Overall, Emi Clay at cone 8 seemed to be strong enough to use for pottery.

PROJECT TITLE: Air Tides: Barometric Pressure and Moon Phases

The purpose of the experiment was to discover if there are air tides caused by the moon's gravity.

In order to find this out, the barometric pressure was recorded daily and juxtaposed with the moon phase of the corresponding day. Also, in order to obtain more accurate and valid results, the barometric pressure and moon phases were checked for the past three years.

In the end, during seven out of the eight moon phases the average barometric pressure behaved like it was expected to. Apparently, air tides caused by the moon's gravity exist.

Project Title: Which Will Erode Soil More: Acids or Bases?

Purpose and Hypothesis

What does acid rain do to soil? If acids harm soil, do bases? When we read an article about acid rain, we decided to do a project about chemical effects on soil erosion. We hypothesized acids would erode more soil with a higher average volume because acids are corrosive and slowly damage land.

Procedure

We set up stream tables and graduated cylinders to create a model of erosion on the earth's surface. We filled the tables with soil and attached tubes to them and the graduated cylinders. After that, we sent a liquid substance through the downspout. It eroded the soil and settled in the graduated cylinder for twenty-four hours. Finally, we averaged the data and compared it for our results.

Conclusion

Our hypothesis was incorrect because bases eroded a higher volume of soil. The bases averaged a volume of 3.7 mL of soil. This occurred because the soil was suspended in the basic liquids; eroding more of it. We realized even though acid rain hurts many organisms in the soil, it might not erode as well as the bases. The acids seemed to be repelled by the soil, which may have caused it from eroding more.

PROJECT TITLE: Mercury in the Environment

Purpose: What is the difference in mercury levels in samples of snow?

Procedure: After gathering materials, locate an area that contains snow. Record exactly where the area is located. Collect a snow sample approximately one day after it ceases to snow and place it in one specimen container and label. Repeat the process using the same area twice more on different days after different snowfalls. Transport the containers to McHenry Analytical Water Laboratory. Pour samples into three analytical lab containers and label the containers. After the mercury is analyzed, review the data reported from the lab by putting it in a chart and graphing it.

Conclusion: When analyzing the mercury levels in three snow samples from different snowfalls, no measurable difference was detected by the laboratory. The experiment demonstrated that the mercury levels in the snow remained constant throughout the winter season. The experimental error was minimal when conducting this project due to minimal contamination of the snow and the professional and thorough analysis of the snow samples.

PROJECT TITLE: Can Fire Alarm Systems Take the Heat?

Purpose: The purpose is to test four different cables used in fire alarm systems to see if they can "take the heat".

Procedure:

1.  Purchase the materials that will be needed for the project.

2. Screw lightbulb holders into a solid wooden board.

3. Insert lightbulbs into holders.

4. Take 2 centimeters of insulator and jacket off of all the cables on each end.

5. Build a circuit with the cables.

6. Place the cables next to a hot fire pit.

7. Hook up the other side of the cables to a battery.

8. Place cables over the fire and observe for 15 minutes.

9. Record results.

10. Repeat steps 3-8 two more times.

Conclusion: In all the trials I conducted in my experiment, the FPLR-CI never failed. The two FPLP cables failed, as did the FPLR.

PROJECT TITLE: From Light to Life

The purpose is "how do different angles and light sources affect the amount of milliamperes you can get from a solar panel?"

First, take a protractor and angle a solar panel to 00. Next, take the meter and set it to 300 mA and attach test leads to the panel's wires. One test lead goes to the meter's lead and the other to the resistor. Connect the meter's other test lead to the resistor. Then, angle the panel to 200, then 450, then 700, and then 900, and repeat the steps with the meter after each angle was measured. Next, repeat with the fluorescent and halogen bulbs.

The project did not support the hypothesis, which is "if incandescent, halogen, and fluorescent light bulbs are used in a solar panel set at various angles, then the greatest current will be found at a 450 angle with an incandescent light bulb." The halogen bulb at no angle got the highest measurement. This is assumed to be because the bulb's light was more focused than the others, and because of the 00 angle, the light hit the panel evenly and was focused directly on it.

PROJECT TIITLE: Measuring Depth of Discharge in Batteries

PURPOSE: The purpose of this experiment was to study the depth of discharge in alkaline batteries and determine the rate of discharge under different loads. Such a determination was necessary when the batteries were being used as an electrical storage system, especially under circumstances where the amount of discharge current varied over time depending on the load. It was hypothesized that ratio of current to time would be consistent with the variable stated depth of discharge.

PROCEDURE: Light bulbs were connected to a voltmeter and an ammeter in parallel circuit with 2 D-cell batteries as the energy. The circuit was allowed to run until the bulbs couldn't emit any light. The experiment had the trial of 2, 4, and 8 bulbs in a circuit.

CONCLUSION: The hypothesis was rejected. It was hypothesized that the current multiplied by the time would be a constant number (IxT=K) The hypothesis was rejected by an interpretation of the amperage data. The first figure disproves the hypothesis. If hypothesis was true, then the 8 bulb circuit would have lasted 370 minutes, not 120. The amount of 370 minutes was found by dividing the number of minutes the 2 bulb battery lasted(1490) by 4. The red bar shows the inefficiency. If the 2 bulb circuit is assumed to be 100% efficient, then the 4 bulb circuit is 63% efficient, and the 8 bulb circuit is only 27% efficient. The hypothesis stated that the 4 and 8 bulb circuits should be 100% efficient. In actuality, however, the 2 bulb circuit is not 100% efficient as proven in this experiment.

PROJECT TITLE: Antenna Resonance

Purpose: The purpose of this project was to find out if using insulated wire to construct an antenna has any effect on the resonant frequency of the antenna.

Procedure: The exhibitor first constructed two dipole antennas each made from 14-gauge multi-strand copper wire, one dipole was made from insulated wire and the other made from non-insulated wire. Each dipole was cut to 10 meters 18.4 centimeters. Both legs of each antenna were marked starting at 7 meters 7.62 centimeters from the balun and then every 7.62 cm until the end. Each antenna was raised 8.3 meters on a tower and the legs spread out 150 degrees from each other. Then using the ratio of maximum to minimum voltages on the antenna also known as Standing Wave Ratio (SWR) the antenna was measured for the resonant frequency and the SWR at that frequency. This information was recorded. Both sides of the antenna were cut to the next mark and the measurements were re-taken. The cutting and measuring processes were repeated until the last mark was reached. The procedure was repeated on the next antenna in the same manner.

Conclusion:  The antenna made of insulated wire was resonant at slightly lower frequencies than the non-insulated antenna at the same length, therefore disproving the exhibitor's hypothesis. The average difference between the frequencies was 0.3998 MHz.

PROJECT TITLE: Bridges Big and Small, Which One is the Strongest of them all?

Purpose: My purpose for this project, since you cross different types of bridges almost everyday, is to see which type of bridge would hold the most weight.

Procedures: For my procedure, I tested out four different types of bridges. What I did was I first took a box and two cables. I punched four holes (one in each corner) and strung the cables in each hole, then I strung the cable through a safety hook. Next, I took a bridge and strung my safety hook through the spacing in the bridge deck and stuck a 16mm rod through the safety hook. Finally, I started putting sand and steel in the box until the bridge broke.

Conclusion: The conclusion of my experiment was that the arch bridge was the strongest. It held the most weight. Therefore, my hypothesis was correct because I hypothesized that the arch bridge would hold the most weight.

PROJECT TITLE: Lattice Bridge is Falling Down

Purpose: to determine if the point where the weights are placed will make a difference in how much weight the bridge can support.

Procedure:  bridges were constructed from wood using a lattice design. Six bridges were constructed. Two bridges were marked with Point A, two with Point B, and two with Point C. Weights were pressed down on those points. Weight was increased until the bridge fractured or collapsed.

Conclusion: I have found that my hypothesis, that Point A would hold the most weight, was incorrect. Point C on the bridge was not the weakest point as originally thought. Point C actually was one of the-stronger points.

PROJECT TITLE: ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES

The purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate the efficient use of solar power to create hydrogen and oxygen through the process of electrolysis for use as fuel in a hydrogen fuel cell. This technology can then replace the use of fossil fuels in automobiles and power plants to create more environmentally friendly products. Solar energy can be used to generate hydrogen for use in a hydrogen fuel cell.

There were four experiments performed for this experiment. The first was a measure of voltage from a solar cell at different distances and angles. Voltage was measured in amps. The second experiment was a test for hydrogen gas by creating hydrogen gas through electrolysis then igniting it. The last two tests tested the efficiency of the hydrogen fuel cell by testing how long it takes to charge up and how long its energy lasts.

The results of this experiment show that solar power can be used to generate hydrogen for use in a fuel cell. My hypothesis was correct. The technology demonstrated in this experiment can be applied to solving today's energy issues. A hydrogen future can become a reality and this experiment is just a small step towards it.

PROJECT TITLE: The Puncture Strength of Paper

Purpose: The purpose of this experiment was to determine the puncture strength of printer paper, notebook paper, magazine pages, newspaper, and phone book pages.

Procedure: For the apparatus, a box approximately 20 cm by 28 cm was constructed and strips of plywood were nailed around the top. Another piece of wood was nailed vertically to the side of this box. An additional piece of wood was nailed horizontally to the top. A scale was affixed to the middle. A turnbuckle was suspended from this scale and attached to a hole in another board. This board was affixed to the vertical board. An eyebolt was fastened to it. To conduct the experiment, the sample was placed on the box and clamped between boards. The turnbuckle was turned, pulling down on the scale, up on one end of the horizontal board, and pushing the bolt into the paper.

Conclusion: The results of my experiment partially confirmed my hypothesis that printer paper would have the strongest puncture strength, followed by notebook paper, magazine pages, newspaper, and then phone book pages. Printer paper was found to have approximately the same average puncture strength as notebook paper.

PROJECT TITLE: And The Green Algae Grows All Around

The purpose of this experiment was to see if the different amounts of nitrates, phosphates, or a combination of the two would grow algae better. If it caused growth, which would cause the most?

Make 5% solutions of nitrates and phosphates. Put 6g of Miracle Grow in with a gallon of water. Put 400mLs of water in blender with 20g of algae and blend. Fill each test tube with 15mLs of distilled water and 5mLs of the algae mixture. Measure the height of the algae. Add 5mLs of each solution to 9 test tubes. Add 8mLs of each solution to another 9 test tubes. The other three are the control. Each day, measure the algae's height and every other day add 5 drops of each solution to the correctly labeled test tubes.

The test tubes that contained the lower amount of Miracle Grow grew algae the best. The lower amount of nitrates did second best. The phosphate containing tubes had no algae growth. The control shrank in the beginning and had a steady height of 1.5 cm.

PROJECT TITLE:  Ethanol-From Corn to Fuel, A Cleaner Way

The purpose of this project is to determine how pollutants contained in exhaust of gasoline blended with 10% ethanol compare to those in gasoline blended with 85% ethanol as to the effect on the growth and health of plants.

The procedure is to soak corn seeds and soybean seeds overnight and plant in ice cube trays filled with soil. Place trays in three aquariums marked 10%, 85%, and Control. Use a grow light on each and water daily. After one week, begin burning process using gasoline with 10% ethanol on one aquarium, gasoline with 85% ethanol on the second, and no gasoline on the control. Take the aquariums outside, put four mL of each type of gas on separate lava rocks and put into burning chamber one at a time. Each aquarium has a plexiglass lid with a hole in the center into which is placed the hose from the burning chamber. Lava rock is ignited and burns until all the gas burns off. Aquariums are brought inside and lids are left on for one hour. This is repeated for fourteen days, height and observations are recorded daily.

The conclusion is that the pollutants contained in exhaust of gas blended with 10% ethanol have a significant effect on the height of soybean plants causing them to be much shorter than those exposed to 85% ethanol, but no effect on height of corn plants. However, the leaves of both plants exposed to 10% ethanol were much smaller, had weaker stems, and less vibrant color than those exposed to 85% ethanol.

Project Title: PH Effect on Cell Structure of Spirogyra

The purpose of this project is to determine whether water that contains a measurable pH level affects the cellular structure of Spirogyra.

Cultures of Spirogyra were grown in twenty-seven petri dishes for seven days containing 40 mL of Spirogyra and agar. On the seventh day, the cells of each petri dish were counted under the microscope. The simulated acidic and basic pH levels were then administrated to the petri dishes. There were 9 groups. Each group contained 3 petri dishes. The control group contained healthy algae cultivated in pollution-free water. With a sprayer, 7 mL of the simulated pH-s were added to the petri dishes. The cells from each petri dish were counted daily for three days after the simulated pH-s entered.

This experiment proved the hypothesis to be right. Acid rain does affect the cell structures of Spirogyra and the lower the pH, the more the cell structures were destroyed. Alkalinity did not have a major affect on Spirogyra, but it did help on the growth of the cells. In the future, this experiment could be expanded by using a variety of pH-s and groups, and by contacting an environmentalist to work with throughout the experiment.

PROJECT TITLE: The Effects of Different Amounts of Fire-Trol LCG-R Fire Retardant on Phaseolus vulgaris

The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether or not different amounts of Fire-Trol LCG-R fire retardant had an affect on the growth of Phaseolus vulgaris.

This was tested by setting up five groups of fifty plants. Groups A-D received fire retardant and the Control Group didn't. Each plant in Group A received 5mL of Fire-Trol LCG-R fire retardant, Group B received 10mL, Group C received 15mL, and Group D received 20mL. This was the only variation in how they were cared for. All the plants received the same amount of sunlight (both real and artificial), 8mL of water per plant everyday, and lived in the same environment.

In conclusion, the more fire retardant Phaseolus vulgaris receives, the more its growth and survival rate are impaired. It causes the plants to die prematurely. The plants took on a sickly appearance after receiving fire retardant proportional to the amount of fire retardant they received. The plants that received the most fire retardant became the most sickly. The Control Group, which had no fire retardant, was still completely healthy. My hypothesis was proven correct; the fire retardant has a negative effect on Phaseolus vulgaris.

PROJECT TITLE: Healthy Backpacks 11

Purpose: The purpose of this experiment was to determine if students at various school levels, such as elementary, middle, junior high, and high, were carrying backpacks that were too heavy for their size. In addition, to determine if the data obtained on backpacks in 2002 differ from 2003.

Procedure: For this experiment, 15 school students, of each gender, and their backpacks were weighed on a weighing scale. The data was recorded and then the student weight to backpack weight was determined. The process was repeated for the various school levels.

Conclusion: In this experiment, it was determined that most junior high and high school students were carrying backpacks that were too heavy for them. The percentage of backpack weight to student weight was above the American Chiropractic Association recommended levels. Consequently, this excess weight could be the cause of back related medical injuries to these students. It was determined that high school students had the highest percentage of backpack weight to student weight when compared to junior high, middle, and elementary school students, which proved my hypothesis. In addition, I concluded that other than in high school students, gender does not any noticeably affect the percentage of backpack.

PROJECT TITLE: Class Focus for Puzzled Pupils

The purpose of this experiment is to figure how colored light affects the pupil in relation to white light.

I became interested because the human eye has always fascinated me. My procedure included having an eight-grade student (age 12-14) sit in a chair in a dim light room. Samples of the colored lights, including white light, were shined in each of the subjects eyes and the size of their pupols was measured in millimeters. The measurements taken for the white light was subtracted from the measurements of each colored light. These results were then divided by the original colored light measurements to find percent of change in comparison to colored light. In conclusion, I rejected my hypothesis because my data did not support it and my results were very consistent.

PROJECT TITLE: The Effects of Pediatric Medicines on Daphnia

Purpose: The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the effects of two well known drugs - albuterol, the most commonly used Asthma medication, and methylphenidate, the most common treatment for Attention Deficit Disorder - both alone and in combination, on Daphnia magna. This work intends to investigate a correlation between the heart rate of Daphnia, which can be used as a measurement of the physiologic effect of the drugs, and the amount of drugs used. Two newer drugs - lev-albuterol and dex-methylphenidate were similarly studied.

Procedure: After measuring the heart rate of each daphnia at baseline in its natural environment, serving as its own control, each was placed either in albuterol, methylphenidate or in a combination of alubterol/methylphenidate at increasing concentrations. The heart rate was measured again. The LC50 was determined for albuterol, for methylphenidate and for both in combination. A similar approach was taken for lev-albuterol and dex-methylphenidate.

Conclusion: Albuterol causes tachycardia, methylphenidate bradycardia and the combination of both, bradycardia to an extent less than anticipated by simple calculation. The LC50 of both drugs in combination is smaller than of either taken separately, showing a synergy of toxicity. Both lev-albuterol and dex-methylphenidate cause bradycardia. The combination of both modulates the side effects of each other in various ways.

PROJECT TITLE: Effect of PTH on TRAP Activity: Osteoporosis

Purpose: Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by the deterioration of bones, causing fractures. Osteoblasts are cells that make new bone, whereas osteoclasts resorb old bone. When resorption exceeds formation, osteoporosis arises. Resorption is a process that involves interaction between osteoblasts and osteociast precursors. This experiment determined if a co-culture system using cell lines could be used as a model to test future drugs in the treatment of osteoporosis. It tested different cell concentrations and Parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations in their efficacy in stimulating osteoclast differentiation.

Procedure: UMR- 106 osteoblastic cells were seeded with RAW 264.7 osteoclast precursors. PTH was added to each of the wells on the first day. On days three and five, the medium was changed and new PTH was added. The activity of TRAP (marker enzyme for osteoclasts) was measured on day six along with a calculation of the number of TRAP+ osteoclasts, which were stained for TRAP.

Conclusion: Cell concentrations (10, 30, and 100 nanomolar) were efficient in the stimulation of osteoclast differentiation. The different PTH concentrations proved to be equally effective in the stimulation of osteoclastogenesis. Therefore, the model was developed and it could be used as a test for future antiresorptive drugs.

PROJECT TITLE: The Failing Moment: The Tensile Strengths and Ability to Withstand Impact of Different Brands of Aluminum Foil

Purpose:  The purpose of this experiment is to determine which aluminum foil brand is strongest, by using tensile strength and an impact test as measurements of foil strength.

Procedure: Gather materials. Construct apparatus for tensile strength test. Place weights in the designated part of the apparatus. Wait fifteen seconds between each weight placement, until the failure analysis of foil. Weigh the weights that caused the failure. Divide weight by area of the foil tested, and record number. Repeat process for ten trials and other brands. Prepare apparatus for impact test. Start at the sixty-centimeter mark. Drop weight upon foil. Move up or down from mark to determine a ten-centimeter range between which the foil does and does not break. Interchange foils between each drop. Narrow ranges to an exact millimeter number from which foil cannot withstand impact, and record number. Repeat process for five trials, and other brands.

Conclusion: The hypothesis made was partially correct. Reynolds and Aldi were the strongest foils overall. Meijer and Dominick's foils had a similar, but lower strength level, while Walgreen's foil was weakest. This was due to the elements used in each alloy. The alloy was the most prominent factor in strength variation. Other factors affecting the results were the differing gauges, production of the foils, and the basic principles of physics concerning the tensile strength and impact test. This information is useful for the economically conscious consumer and for the foil producers. If continued this experiment would involve machines, more trials, and a wider assortment of foil brands.

PROJECT TITLE: Metal Detector Operation

Purpose: I always wanted to use a metal detector and understand it. I learned about mine detectors and airport security. I want to see what insulators might prevent metal from being detected to prevent a bomb or bullet from being found.

Procedure: There are different types of metal detectors. I bought a radio frequency metal detector, collected metal samples and made a frame. I collected insulator samples of the same size and volume made out of different rocky materials with different densities. I tuned the metal detector to a silent radio signal and then put a metal sample underneath and slowly brought the metal detector down until I heard the static signal. I recorded the height when the signal was detected. I repeated the experiment for each of the metal samples and each insulator.

Conclusion: The experiment went well and almost as expected. I found that regardless of the insulator, steel was the most detectable and copper the least detectable. I also found aluminum and brass were similar. For each metal sample by itself, the results confirmed my hypothesis that very rocky surfaces, like sand or concrete, are the best insulator because their surfaces reflect the radio waves in all directions. More research is needed to understand how materials like wood or cardboard may be absorbing the radio waves.

PROJECT TITLE: Sound Stopper

Purpose: The purpose of this experiment is to determine which material: fiberglass insulation, shredded newspaper, or Polystyrene insulation will work best as a soundproofing agent. Also, the purpose of this experiment is to determine which sound frequency: 200hz, 350hz, or 475hz will be easiest to soundproof.

Procedure:

1. Record ten one second beeps of a 200hz sound. Repeat with a 350hz and a 475hz

2. Place 5 40x25x3cm pieces of polystyrene insulation in the 40x25x 15cm cardboard box.

3. Place the 40x25xl5cm box in the middle of the 3lx24x53cm cardboard box

4. Place digital decibel meter 2.54cm on one side of the 40x25xl5cm box but within the 2lx24x53cm box.

5. Place tape recorder 2.54cm away from the 40x25xl5cm box on the opposite side as the digital decibel meter.

6. Play sound 200hz sound for 10 seconds.

7. Record 10 decibels readings for each time the sound plays with digital decibel meter.

8. Repeat steps 5-6 5 times to attain appropriate amount of trials (50).

9. Repeat steps 6-8 with shredded newspaper, fiberglass insulation, and control (no material).

10. Repeat steps 6-9 with 300hz and 475hz sound.

Conclusion: I concluded that the polystyrene board insulation is the best agent for soundproofing of those that I tested. Also, I concluded that the sound with a frequency of 200hz was the easiest to sound proof.

PROJECT TITLE: Firelog Science V: Corn Cobs

Purpose Statement: The purpose of my experiment was to determine which of my five different firelogs, four homemade firelogs and a Sam's Choice Crackling Firelog, burned the hottest, longest, brightest, most consistent and with the least amount of soot.

Procedure: In this experiment, fifteen samples of five different firelogs were burned in an insulated metal chamber. The chamber was fitted with a computer and three probes: one air temperature, one water temperature, and a light sensor to measure light and bum time. Once the probes and computers were linked up, the equally sized and weighted samples were placed inside the canister. The canister was placed over the burning sample with the beaker of water on top of the chamber. On a predetermined time a section of cheesecloth was placed over the flue of the chamber to measure the amount of soot given off.

Conclusion: This year I proved my hypothesis correct. My result's proved Sam's Choice to be the best performing firelog. It proved to be the most consistent firelog and gave off the best readings for both light and air temperature. I am confident and very pleased with these results and was able to draw some very unique conclusions.

PROJECT TITLE: Growing Magnetic Nanorods with High Aspect Ratios

Purpose: An anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane is a self-ordered array of pores whose properties (e.g. diameter, length, etc.) are directly related to the roughness (surface anomalies) of the aluminum substrate upon which it is grown. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the optimal roughness of the aluminum substrate in order to promote the growth of magnetic nanorods with high aspect ratios (large length, small diameter) within the pores of the AAO membrane. Magnetic nanorods, specifically cobalt nanorods, with high aspect ratios would be very beneficial to building ultra high-density data storage devices.

Procedure: Through mechanical polishing, an aluminum substrate was first polished to an expected roughness. Subsequently, the AAO was grown on the aluminum substrate using an electrolysis procedure. The AAO was then removed from the aluminum substrate and coated with a layer of silver to increase the conductivity of the membrane. The silver-backed AAO was then placed in an electrodeposition cell where cobalt was deposited into the pores. The properties of the nanorods were then observed to determine their aspect ratios.

Conclusion: After all the data had been collected, the aspect ratio was calculated. The roughness of the aluminum substrate was then graphed versus the aspect ratio. After careful analysis of the results, the optimal aluminum substrate roughness was established.

PROJECT TITLE Easy as Pi: Buffon's Needle Experiment

Purpose: The purpose of this experiment is to determine whether or not pi-can be calculated when the length of the needle is equal to or greater than the distance between the parallel lines.

Procedure: Draw parallel lines 6 cm, 4 cm, and 3 cm apart on three poster boards. Toss a needle on to the first board a great number of times. Count the number of times the needle is thrown and the number of times it crosses a line. Follow the directions for the other two boards. Substitute 4 and either 3,4,or 6 into the equation.

Conclusion: For Board A, on which the d=6, the experimenter threw the needle 1700 times and found 3.14378 approximately. On the second board, where d=4, the experimenter again threw the needle but only achieved 2.148499. After throwing the needle on the third board, where d=3, the number found was 1.9536. This disproves the first half of the hypothesis, but proves the second half. The hypothesis was that the experiment would find pi for the second board but not for the third board. To make this experiment better the experimenter could've thrown the needle more times, and used bigger poster boards.

PROJECT TITLE: Validity

Purpose: To find out if the size of a die affects its validity.

Procedure:

1. Drop all dice into the Yhatzee cup, from largest to smallest.

2. Shake the cup up and down for five seconds

3. Dump the dice out of the cup into the box.

4. In each die's column, record the number that it landed on.

5. Repeat steps 5-9 four more times.

6. Conduct 211 more tests.

7. By counting the number of each number, for each size die, calculate the percentage of

times each number was rolled.

Conclusion: After conducting all of the tests, Linnea's hypothesis was proved incorrect. The size of a die does affect its validity, but the monopoly die wasn't affected the most. Throughout the entire experiment the only changing variable was the size of the dice. The shaking, timing, rolling & container, and the number of times each die was rolled were kept consistent Also, the percent 16.67%, was used to measure the accuracy of each die. The percent was used by comparing it to the percent of times each number was rolled by each sized die. The percent of error between the two then contributed to determining which die's validity was affected the most.

PROJECT TITLE: The Math and Music Connection

Purpose: The purpose of my experiment is to determine if there are mathematical patterns evident in the music of the Classical Period.

Procedure: First count the number of notes in the treble and bass clefs for each of the compositions. Then calculate the total number of notes in each piece. Lastly count the number of measures in each composition. Enter all of this data into Microsoft Excel and create charts and graphs representing the data. Print individual graphs of the total number of notes, the number of notes in the treble and bass clefs and the total number of measures. Check the graphs and the actual music for patterns. Make a ratio of the number of notes in the treble line to the bass line. Inspect for any correlations. Compare all data for results.

Conclusion: The conclusion is that my hypothesis was correct. There were patterns found and the mathematical patterns evident did coincide with those found in the Baroque period.

PROJECT TITLE: Chaos in Classical Billiards

Purpose: The effects of nonlinear behavior reach across science, from astronomy to economics, cardiology to quantum dynamics. Yet despite the tremendous variety of nonlinear or chaotic systems, some properties of their behavior appear to be universal. While, ergodic effects have been thoroughly explored for one-dimensional mapping procedures, their role in higher dimensions is still, unclear. Ideally, this work will verify the universality of scaling in chaotic systems with the calculation of a scaling constant for the fractal structures present in higher dimensions.

Procedure: The researcher investigates these properties in a two -dimensional stadium billiard system, a closed planar region in which a particle propagates according to Newtonian laws. By writing programs using Matlab software, the chaotic properties of the billiard system can be explored both graphically and analytically. Using techniques like Poincare sections and Lyapunov exponents enables an examination of the transition between chaos and classical behavior despite the challenges posed by a multidimensional phase space.

Conclusions: Extensive research has shown that scaling in the two-dimensional is analogous to the one-dimensional case, though major differences exist between the two. This work suggests universality by demonstrating the fractal pattern which appears as this system becomes more chaotic. However, a truly irrefutable argument would require tremendous computational resources.

PROJECT TITLE: Super Bacteria

The purpose of my experiment was to find out the effects of antibacterial soap on bacterial resistance of E. coli.

To do this, I incubated E. coli for 5 days in .05%, then tested it in .05% and .1 % to see how it'd react.

My conclusion is that excessive exposure to small amounts of soap will cause E. coli bacteria to become more and more resistant to the active ingredient in soap, triclosan. This is proved by the shorter amount of time it took the treated E. coli to grow in.05% and the actual growth in.1% , which there was not before the exposure.

PROJECT TITLE: Chemotaxis: Bacteria in Motion. What are the chemotactic responses of Pseudomonas putida when subjected to common chemicals found in farm runoff?

This project explores the chemotactic responses of the bacteria Pseudomonas
pittida when exposed to two chemicals common in agricultural runoff. Phosphate and atrazine, a fertilizer and an herbicide respectively, have adverse effects on the environment and human health. Recent research indicated possible uses of certain strains of Pseudomonas in the bioremediation of atrazine. It is hypothesized that the bacterial species Pseudomonas putida will demonstrate positive chemotaxis to phosphate, although it may be hypothesized that bacteria in general would show negative chemotaxis to an herbicide, the behavior of Pseudomonas pittida is unknown.

A chemotaxis assay involves exposing a culture of bacteria to a chemical contained in a 30-micron glass pipette on a slide, then observing resulting cell movements over time. This researcher prepared pipettes, agar media, chemotaxis chemical, bacterial cultures and slide assemblies. Nine 10-minute runs exposed cultures of Pseudomonas putida to phosphate, atrazine, and noble agar (control). Chemotactic responses were recorded using photomicrographs sequenced into a video.

Pseudomonas putida reacted positively towards the nutrient phosphate, showing observable chemotaxis in both the speed and numbers of cells moving towards the pipette tips. The control group showed no reaction as expected, and atrazine showed a low positive response in 2 of 3 trials.

PROJECT TITLE: The Effect of Pseudomonas syringae Effectors on Plant Cells

Pseudomonas syringae is a bacterium that has a type-III secretion system. This type of bacteria is known to cause disease by utilizing a system in which proteins are strategically injected into host cells. Specifically, the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 contains about 50 different "effectorÓ proteins, that are injected into a host cell through a syringe-like structure that is inserted through the cell wall.

In this project, several individual genes encoding effector proteins are to be cloned from the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae and the effect of each of these effectors is to be identified using transient transformation in Nicotiana tabacum and N. benthamiana plants, and stable transformation in Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Plant leaves will then be analyzed for cell death (disease symptoms) and hypersensitive response by the plant (programmed cell death).

To date, 22 effectors; 17 from Pto DC3000,4 homologues effectors from other Pseudomonas strains, and 1 homologue from pathogenic E. coli, have been tested in N. tabacum and N. benthamiana, and 4 homologue effectors in A. thaliana. N. benthamiana, N. tabacum and A. thaliana. plants have responded to 13, 12 and 3 effectors respectively with some degree of cell death.

PROJECT TITLE: Mechanism Elucidation of Non-Mitogenic Anti-CD3 Treatment in EAE

It is widely accepted that autoreactive T cells escape the process of thymic negative selection to initiate autoimmune disease development and progression. Previous studies have investigated the therapeutic potential of numerous immunotherapy treatments to combat these autoreactive T cells, but unfortunately, protective outcomes have also been accompanied by non-specific negative side-effects. In the current study, we investigated the treatment potential of non-mitogenic versions of the CD3-IgG1 antibody to achieve a state of immune tolerance within the context of the EAE model of multiple sclerosis.

Our investigations of both the CD3-F(ab')2 antibody, with a truncated Fc region and the chimeric CD3-IgG3 antibody proved to effectively inhibit clinical disease progression and antigen- specific T cell proliferation, thereby suggesting the efficacy of the treatments. Importantly, both in vivo and in vitro non-mitogenic antibody treatment failed to either induce apoptosis or deletion of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells. However, both treatments induced significant levels of intracellular Ca++ flux in the absence of cellular activation and proliferation, suggesting that the non-mitogenic treatments may be active signaling inhibitors.

Taken together, our findings suggest that non-mitogenic antibody treatment may actively induce a state of immune tolerance and confer protection against the progression of autoimmune disease.

PROJECT TITLE: Swing Away

Purpose: The purpose of the researchers Science Fair Project Is to test which driver golf club will hit the ball the furthest out of all the drivers that the researcher will be testing.

Procedure:

1. The researcher gathered information and specifications an eight different drivers, the Iron Byron, a golf swing machine, springs, and the makeup of golf bags.

2.     The researcher worked with his father to design a simple, single radius, golf swing machine and then built it using readily available lumber and hardware.

3.     The researcher set up his Golf Swing Machine in the Schaumburg Golf Galaxy golf simulator.

4.     The first set of tests included hitting each of the eight drivers three times with the Golf Swing Machine.

5.     The next set of tests was performed by a go# professional hitting the same golf balls one time with each of the test drivers,

1. The researcher went home and studied the test results. The information was compiled into, charts & graphs, and the results were analyzed to draw a conclusion.

Conclusion: The researcherÕs hypothesis that the King Cobra 440 SZ Titanium Driver would hit the ball the furthest out of the eight drivers that the researcher tested was not proven correct. The results from the experiments showed that the total distance the golf ball traveled was greatest in both sets of tests when the Titleist E Driver hit the ball.

PROJECT TITLE: Musical Tones and their Mathematical Relationship

Purpose: The purpose of this project is to discover the mathematical patterns in musical tones (piano and violin) within a single octave itself and among the different octaves. I love music and mathematics; this project might help me understand music better.

Procedure: Each note of piano and violin was played. Its frequency was measured by the computer program, ÒTune It 3.01 Ò. The measurement was repeated ten times for each note. The frequency data were analyzed to determine the patterns.

Conclusion: My measurements found that the relationship among the octaves followed the pattern of exact integer ratios (0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4). The pattern of the notes within the same octave itself followed the simple ratio between I and 2 (1, 9/8, 5/4, 4/3, 3/2, 5/3, 15/8, 2). These results supported my hypothesis and can be explained with Just Temperament and/or Pythagorean Temperament. The last part of my hypothesis predicted that the frequencies of unknown notes could be calculated. The calculated and measured frequencies varied little.

PROJECT TITLE: Keep those grains rolling

PURPOSE: Granular physics is the branch of physics which deals with large conglomerations of discrete macroscopic particles. Many of its properties include the angle of repose which is the maximum angle of a free standing pile of granular material. Granular mixtures tend to separate if disturbed. The purpose of this experiment was to discover if differences in size, shape, or weight cause separation, to what magnitude, and apply it to packaging.

PROCEDURE: Three sets of grains, each having a difference in size (red lentils-green lentils), shape (red lentils-generic white rice), or weight (fluff-gravel) were taken. The angle of repose was found for uniform 50-50 mixtures by calculating the inverse tangent of a pile on a round post. Pure red lentils served as the control due to similar size, shape, and weight in grains. A cylindrical container, having a handle, with a radius of 20cm and a volume of 3.8L, held in the middle of two firmly clamped rods, was filled halfway with a mixture and sandpaper lined the walls to add friction. The container was spun 200 times carefully. After spinning, the angle of repose of the mixture was again measured. If there was difference in the before and after mixture, there was a nonconformity in the mixture and the grains had separated. Results were compared after three trials.

CONCLUSION: Red lentils-green lentils separated most with their angle of repose decreasing by 3.110, red lentils-rice separated least with a decrease of 1.960, and the control's angle of repose decreased by .560.

PROJECT TITLE: Light: A Bending Phenomenon

Purpose: To find out which physical property of a solution, density or viscosity, has a greater effect on the refraction of light.

Procedure: Prepared five sugar water solutions (0%, 20%, 40% 60%, 80%, Syrup by volume); 100 ml each using corn syrup and distilled water. Five salt solutions were prepared (0%, 20%, 40% 60%, 80%, 100% NaCl by volume); 100 ml each using salt and distilled water. Weighed exactly 100 ml of each solution and calculated the density of each test solution. Measured the viscosity of each test solution recording the time in seconds it took the glass marble to move from the top to the bottom of the cylinder. Finally, measured the refraction of light through each solution by shining a laser through a hollow prism that was filled with a test solution and measuring the position of deflected light beam leaving the prism using calculated grid on a mounting board.

Conclusion: Based upon the results of my experiment, the refraction of light in salt and sugar solutions depended much more strongly on the density of the solution than the viscosity.

PROJECT TITLE: The Effect of Aloe vera on Hair Growth

Purpose: The Purpose of this study is to determine if the plant, aloe vera has an effect on hair growth.

Procedure: Three guinea pigs of approximately the same size and age were used. Their backs were shaved at the beginning of weeks one, four and eight of the study. Twelve blocks each measuring 0.3 square centimeters were marked with a permanent marker on the backs of the guinea pigs. Six blocks on the right side were treated with daily application of the gel from aloe vera leaves. The six blocks on the left were not treated. Of the three out of six blocks, on the treated and non-treated sides, hair was clipped weekly and the number of hair was counted to get the hair density. The three other blocks were used to measure hair length. The length of twenty hairs from each block were measured in millimeters weekly and the averages were taken to determine growth in length. Comparisons were made of the hair density per 0.3 centimeters square and hair length in millimeters on the treated and non-treated areas.

Conclusion: The hair density in the treated and non-treated areas increased from week one to week thirteen of the study. The hair density on the treated side, however, was more than the non-treated side in the majority of the trials. Hair length as measured in millimeters was also longer on the treated side than the non-treated side. From these observations it appears that the hypothesis is right. Aloe vera does have a positive effect on hair growth.

PROJECT TITLE: What Color Food Attracts Chickens the Most?

Purpose: The purpose of this project is to see what color food attracts chickens the most.

Procedure: First, place 1. 14 L of Profile Country Choice Food in each of the three coffee cans. Then, add 60 mL of water to each of the three coffee cans. Add 35 drops of green food coloring to one of the coffee tins. Shake until all the food is green. Use the same procedure for red and blue. Place the plates 1.2 meters apart from each other. Place 284 mL of green food on one plate. Do the same for red and blue. Place 284 mL of the control (undyed food) on the last place. Allow the chickens access to the plates. Start the timer for two minutes. Stand far enough away, so they are not afraid to eat at any of the plates. Count how many chickens are at each plate. Disperse the chickens from the food area. Remeasure the food, so there is 284 mL of food on each plate. Change the food's places after the test. Repeat the experiment two more times on the same day.

Conclusion: I conclude that chickens were most attracted to red, followed by blue, green, and the control. The average percentage of chickens at each color were as follows: red; 44.3%, blue; 18%, green; 20.6%, and the control; 15%.

PROJECT TITLE:  The Effect of Goldenseal on Regeneration of Planaria

The purpose of this experiment was to determine the optimal amount of goldenseal root extract needed to enhance the regeneration of planaria.  By testing the effect of goldenseal root extract on planaria, one can assume that goldenseal root extract has similar effects on humans.  If the goldenseal root extract stimulated regeneration in planaria, it may also help to heal wounds and infections in humans.

The research presented within the body of this paper was accumulated over a two year period.  The first phase of research involved identifying whether, or not, goldenseal root extract could be used as a wound healing medicine.  This was done by comparing regeneration of planaria in spring water, goldenseal root, and Echinacea solutions.  Once it was concluded that goldenseal root extract had the greatest positive effect on regeneration of planaria, the goal of the research sifted towards identifying an ideal amount of goldenseal root extract.  This was achieved by creating solutions of goldenseal root at percents of .oo1%, .01%, and.1%.  The control group was planaria in their natural habitat, spring water.

When the experimental groups were compared to the control by statistical analysis, it was determined that the .1% goldenseal root extract solution was the best at enhancing planaria regeneration.  It could therefore be concluded that the more goldenseal one consumes, the faster oneÕs wounds will heal.

PROJECT TITLE: Is There a Difference in Motility and Viability Between Fresh and Frozen Semen?

Purpose: Is There a Difference in Motility and Viability Between Fresh and Frozen Semen?

Procedure: On February 24th I purchase fresh and frozen semen from Prairie State Inc. I then prepared a water bath by mixing hot and cold water. I next took the semen from the nitrogen tank and thawed it. I then placed one drop of semen on a microscope slide and evaluated it. I then prepared a water bath for the freshly collected semen. I placed the fresh semen in the water bath for sixty seconds. I then placed a drop of semen on the microscope and evaluated it. I then used the mass and individual charts to evaluate the semen. I preformed this experiment ten times on the first, third, fifth, and seventh days and then I evaluated the semen.

Conclusion: I conclude that there is a difference in motility and viability between fresh and frozen semen The fresh semen proved to be more viable in the artificial insemination process. The frozen semen's motility ratings decreased from day one but remained relatively similar. I believe after experimentation that the frozen semen should not be used in the AI process. In addition I feel it is to the farmer's advantage to use fresh rather than frozen semen. In extreme cases, however, it may be to ones advantage to use the frozen semen.

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