Saved science fair projects:

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Best in Category Winners

2001 IJAS State Exposition


Category Division Student Name Project Title
Aerospace Junior Brandon Jon Gress The Effect of Size and Position of Fins on Rocket Flight
Aerospace Junior Daniel Wolff The Effect of Airfoil Design on Lift
Aerospace Senior Tim Shotts How the Angle of Incidence Affects Lift
Astronomy Junior Laura Krause Itís A Blast!
Behavioral Science Junior Abby J. Engebose The Effect of Color on Memory and Perception
Behavioral Science Junior Lakshmi Sivarajan The Effect of Music and Nature Sounds on Math
Behavioral Science Senior Frank Aguilar Enhanced Infrared Navigation for the Blind
Behavioral Science Senior Caroline Freitag A statistical analysis of the personality-centered cognitive style differences between gifted and non-gifted children
Biochemistry Junior Aaron Brockschmidt DNA Extraction ó Finding Lifeís Little Treasures
Biochemistry Junior Natasha Teetsov Walk Like an Egyptian Chicken
Biochemistry Senior Debarshi Mustafi Kinetic Studies of Inhibition of ß-Lactamases
Biochemistry Senior Karuna Patil Relationship of Lead Levels in Soil and Blood
Botany Junior Jennifer Burns Does Mass Affect the Emergence of a Soybean Seed?
Botany Junior Victoria Scala Do pH Levels Affect Plants Grown Hydroponically?
Botany Senior Nick Hansen Growth of Algae in a Polluted Environment
Botany Senior Zach Kern Inch by Inch, Row by Row, How Does Your Garden Grow?
Chemistry Junior Sumeet Jain How Does the Viscosity of Lava Affect Itís Flow Rate?
Chemistry Junior Heidi Nance Does Immersion Affect Conductivity?
Chemistry Senior Krista P. Taake Characterization of Coffee Beans Using Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) Gas Chromatography
Chemistry Senior Arun P. Thottumkara Synthesis of User and Exo-Friendly Hypervalent Iodine Reagents
Computer Science Junior Colleen Dolan Optimal Computer Memory
Computer Science Junior Amanda Karson Which Audio Compression is the Best?
Computer Science Senior Alexandra Rahlin The Use of Computer Programming Languages to Search for Prime Numbers
Computer Science Senior Brian Ohsone Zargham Protein Secondary Structure Prediction
Consumer Science Junior Margie Mathewson Does Preconceived Color-Flavor Association Affect the Way We Perceive Taste?
Consumer Science Junior Ryne Saxe Driver Dilemma
Consumer Science Senior Katherine Ellen King Perception vs. Performance of Acne Products
Consumer Science Senior Stephanie Winberg Keep on Rolling: Motor Oilís "Roll" in Reducing Kinetic Friction
Earth Science Junior Kayla Svoboda The Effect of Temperature, Relative Hunidity, and Air Pressure on the Size and Shape of Snow Crystals
Earth Science Junior Ryan Twiddy What Materials Cleans Up Oil Spills the Best?
Earth Science Senior Becky Cvikota Is Synthetic Coal More Energy Efficient than Natural Coal?
Earth Science Senior Michael Obilade Determining the Seismic Range of a Hydro-Acoustic Seismograph
Electronics Junior Breck Fresen & 

Michael Wiczer

Can Bluetooth Cut It?
Electronics Junior Cole Habbley Reflection Detection
Engineering Junior Shireen Groleau The Effects of Varied Designs of Water Wheels on the Level of Hydroelectric Power Produced
Engineering Junior Matthew Logan How the Number of Passes Through the Heat Exchanger Affects the Outlet Temperature from the Exchanger
Engineering Senior Andrew Stewart The Effect of Kiln Dust and Slag in Concrete
Environmental Science Junior Michael Hanley The Biological Control of Purple Loosestrife
Environmental Science Junior Daria Zelasko H2O: Achieving the Ultimate Pure
Environmental Science Senior Anna Lisa Daniele Is Bioremediation Effective in the Treatment of Soil Pollution?
Environmental Science Senior Beth Kaskel Generational Effects of Acid Rain on Drosophilia melanogaster
Health Science Junior Rachel Remke Which Parent Affects Fingerprint Pattern Types Most?
Health Science Junior Joanna Zhang Chefís Choice
Health Science Senior Jessica Bachrach Garlicís Effect on Planaria Regeneration
Health Science Senior Maya Frommer The Regulation of Rnase H in Epithelial Cells
Material Science Junior Joe Dunn The Effect of Tip Radius on Crack Propagation
Material Science Junior Sujay Venkat Soaking Wet: Water Absorption in Woods and Benefits of Surface Coatings
Material Science Senior Valerie Casey The Effects of Annealing on Stainless Steel
Material Science Senior Joanne Leong Plating Sacrificial Corrosion Resistance
Mathematics Junior Sarah Michalczuk To Buy or Not to Buy? That is the Question
Mathematics Junior Matthew Zicher Should teachers use multiple choice tests?
Mathematics Senior Yuliya Gorlina Analytical Examination of Conics
Mathematics Senior Heather OíShea Home vs. Away
Microbiology Junior Clare Rupprecht TRI-DISINFECTA
Microbiology Junior Daniel Rupprecht How Sweet It Is!
Microbiology Senior Alexandra Asrow Internal Selection vs. Random Mutation as Causes of Ampicillin Resistance in E. coli
Microbiology Senior Nadia Shakoor Differential Regulation of thelac and ara operons in E. coli as Expressed by Blue an Green-Fluorescence Proteins
Physics Junior Andrew Weatherhead Hang Time
Physics Senior Nathaniel C. Jakus The Wind Turbine Design with Highest Wattage
Zoology Junior Nicholas Lamm Time Flies Like an Arrow, But Do Fruit Flies Like a Magnet?
Zoology Junior Derek Lesko Daphnia: The Rise & Fall of a Heartbeat
Zoology Senior Elizabeth Fesser Rat Olfactory Nerve Regeneration: Synaptophysin Correlation with Tyrosine Hydroxylase and Morphometric Data
Zoology Senior Natalie Kieffer Fat Chicks 2


The Effect of Size and Position of Fins on Rocket Flight

Purpose: To determine if the flight of a rocket is effected by either changing the position of the fins along its body, or by differences in the fin sizes.

Procedure: In order to produce a controlled testing procedure, uniform cross bow bolts will be substituted for propellant powered rockets. Three different fin sizes (2 cm2 , 3 cm2, and 4 cm2) are attached to seven inch long carbon cross bow bolts at one of three different positions relative to the rocket's center of gravity. These positions are behind the center of gravity (CG), at the CG, and in front of the CG. The center of gravity is determined by balancing each bolt on a narrow edge and marking it. These mini-rockets are then fired from the same cross bow which is fixed m place. The tests will be performed on an indoor range to minimize environmental influences. The target is placed at a distance of ten meters. Each test shot needs to be calibrated to an ideal impact spot using a laser pointer that is placed in the cross bowí s breach prior to each test shot. Ten cross bow bolts without fins are fired first to obtain an average distance that is measured from the laser spot. This value is then used as the control group result. The impact points on the target paper will be measured in centimeters and recorded for ten shots for each test group. Each test group has one independent variable that is different from the other groups as well as from the control group. Nine test groups of ten shots each am fired.

Conclusion: The trials have shown that fins mounted behind the center of gravity have a positive; effect on the flight of the mini-rockets. The fin size in this position did not significantly alter the accuracy. Fins placed at both the center of gravity and in front of this point were shown to have a negative effect on the flight of the rocket.


The Effect of Airfoil Design on Lift

I set out to find through my project whether or not airfoil design affects the amount of lift produced by an airplane wing.

In my experiment I tested wings with symmetrical, semi-symmetrical, flat bottom, and under-camber airfoil designs. To measure lift, I placed the wings upside-down on a digital metric postal scale. I aimed a stream of air horizontally at the wing, which created lift by moving downward. This movement was displayed on the scale, and I recorded these figures that showed how many grams of lift each wing made.

My experiment proved that airfoil design does affect the amount of lift produced by a wing. The under-camber airfoil made the most lift, followed by flat bottom, semi-symmetrical, and symmetrical, which made no lift. This happened because the downward motion in air behind the wing caused by the airfoil shape resulted in the upward motion of lift, and because of the theory that as air flowed over the wing and gained kinetic energy it had to lose pressure, so the relatively high-speed air over the wing had a lower pressure than low-speed air below it. This meant that the wing had to be "sucked" in an upward direction, causing lift. 


How the Angle of Incidence Affects Lift

The purpose for this experiment was to design a better rubber-band-powered airplane. The most important aspect in this is to create the most lift out of a wing. I chose to measure the flight time created by the wing at different angles of incidence. To do this, I built a plane on which I could easily change the angle of incidence. By keeping the power and weight constant, the flight time could only be changed by the lift being produced by the wing. The collected data showed that the wing produced peak lift at approximately 19* with a flight time of 57 seconds. If given a larger data sample, I believe the peak lift would have remained near 19* 


It's A Blast!

The Purpose of this experiment is to find out how sunspots and solar flares affect the Aurora Borealis.

First the experimenter checks to see how cloudy it is outside. If its clear you take out the telescope, but if itís cloudy you need to sign on to the Internet and go to the Big Bear Solar Observatory web site. Next the experimenter gets an Association of Lunar and Planetary Observers Solar Section Report Form to record sunspots and solar flares either directly through the telescope, or from the Internet web site. Then go to the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska web page and collect the Auroral predictions for the Northern Hemisphere for that day. Finally the experimenter puts away the telescope or signs off of the Internet.

In conclusion, the experimenter found that sunspot quantity is not as important as size. After many days of observing, it appears that the experimenter's hypothesis is only partially correct. In most of her observations when there were few large sunspots, the auroraís affected more than when there were many smaller sunspots. It appears that larger sunspots are capable of producing stronger magnetic storms and flares causing more Auroral activity on Earth. 


The Effect of Color on Memory and Perception

PURPOSE: The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether or not color had an effect on a person's ability to perceive and remember two-dimensional objects.

METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A total of 55 eighth grade students were divided into two test groups (grayscale versus color). Each test subject was given a sealed packet containing a graphic of a diet Sunkist® Lemonade can (grayscale or color) and a questionnaire. The test subjects were told to break the seal at which point they had 30 seconds to view the graphic. The test subjects were then instructed to turn over the page and complete the questionnaire. Completed questionnaires were screened to eliminate data from subjects who were non-compliant, colorblind, or had uncorrected vision. A total of 40 questionnaires remained (20 from each test group) which were scored and analyzed.

CONCLUSION: Overall, test subjects who viewed the color graphic noted more detail than those that viewed the grayscale graphic. Additionally, females noted more detail than males but males had a higher difference from grayscale to color than did females. Thus, color does have an effect on a person's ability to perceive and remember two-dimensional objects 


The Effect of Music and Nature Sounds on Math

The purpose of my experiment was to see whether listening to nature sounds could affect the math accuracy of third graders. If so, would the scores on the tests be higher when listening to the nature sounds or classical music?

I gave twenty-three third graders three tests of one hundred multiplication problems. They had five minutes to finish each test. They finished the first test in silence. While they completed the remaining two tests, they listened to classical music and nature sounds, respectively. While they finished these tests, I called out how many minutes they had left until I would call time, because their teachers had done so previously. I collected the tests and graded them. I then analyzed all of these results and put them into charts and graphs.

My conclusion is that classical music and nature sounds do affect the math accuracy of third graders. The results show that listening to classical music helps bring about better math accuracy for third graders. The results also show that nature sounds is better to help bring about a better math accuracy for third graders. 


Enhanced Infrared Navigation for the Blind

The U.S. Navy and Army have primarily used infrared for defense and surveillance purposes. Infrared though, could help the blind navigate more efficiently when put to use. This project examined the effectiveness of infrared when used to help the blind.

A device was constructed that converted an infrared signal into three different sound frequencies that could alert the user of differently positioned objects in his path. It was mounted onto a cane; the infrared beam increased to 20 inches and made lighter in weight. This cane, the IR2 cane, is identical to last year's infrared cane except for these changes. An obstacle course was constructed where the typical cane served as the control and the IR2 and infrared canes, as the experimental groups. The error frequency and the course completion time of eight individuals subjected to the course with the IR2 cane were measured and analyzed. These results were analyzed with those obtained the previous year for the typical and original infrared cane.

The IR2 cane was proven to help the blind navigate more efficiently in comparison to the other two canes. The average errors made with the IR2 cane were 1.25 with an average completion time of 34.35 seconds. 


A statistical analysis of the personality--centered cognitive style differences between gifted and non-gifted children

Purpose: The purpose of this experiment is to determine whether gifted students have a distinctive personality-centered cognitive style.

Procedure: First, the Student Styles Questionnaire test was selected for use in this study. Second, a group of gifted and non-gifted students who had taken the WISC III test were chosen. The students were labeled non-gifted if their IQ score was between 100-129 and gifted if their score was 130 or over. Third, permission to test these students was obtained from their guardians. Next, the SSQ test was administered to the test subjects and the data was obtained. Then, a chi-square test, a t-test, and a Pearson Product Moment Coefficient of Correlation were applied to the data. The variables IQ, gender, and style were all examined. Finally, conclusions were drawn.

Conclusion: The results of this study were mixed. The results from the chi-square, t-test, and Pearson Product Moment Coefficient of Correlation that were not gender specific, showed no relationship to IQ score. When the coefficient of correlation was performed on gender specific data, my hypothesis was supported in two areas. The females were found to have an increasing propensity for the imaginative style with an increase in IQ score. The males were found to have a greater preference for the organized style with an increase in IQ score. 


DNA Extraction - Finding Life's Little Treasures

Purpose: The purpose of this project has been to determine the amounts of DNA that can be extracted from wheat germ by using different water temperatures.

Procedure: Place I grain of wheat germ into a 50ml test tube and add 20 n-A of water at specific temperatures. Stir for 3 minutes. Add I ml of liquid detergent and stir gently for 30 seconds of every minute for 5 minutes. Layer 15 nil of grain alcohol on the top of the wheat germ/water/detergent solution. Let the test tube sit for 15 minutes. Lift DNA from the test tubes. Dry, weigh, and record the amount of DNA from using 10', 25', 40', 5 5' 70', and 85' Celsius.

Conclusion: My hypothesis was correct. Of the temperatures tested, there is an optimal initial water temperature at which DNA could be obtained from the wheat germ, and that temperature is 55'C. The cooler temperatures did not have enough heat to break down the cell walls. The highest temperature caused the DNA to unravel or loose its shape so it could not be collected. 


Walk Like an Egyptian Chicken

Purpose: The purpose of this experiment is to determine which salt compounds or salt mixtures: baking soda, Epsom salts, table salts, Epsom salts/table salt, table salt/baking soda, Epsom salts/ baking soda, table salts/Epsom salts/baking salts, or no salts at all will make the best mummified chicken.

Procedure: In the procedure, each of eight bowls contained a piece of chicken that was first weighed, measured for surface area, coated with a salt mixture or compound (named above), and wrapped with gauze. After nine days, the salt was scraped off the chicken, and the piece was reweighed.

Conclusion: In the hypothesis, it was predicted that the chicken coated with table salts would make the best mummified chicken. This hypothesis was incorrect. The chicken coated with Epsom salts made the best mummified chicken. This could have been due to the mass, the measuring tools, and the temperature and humidity levels. In the first test, the chicken coated in table salt made the best mummified chicken. The results from the first test may have been different due to the chicken pieces were not covered with gauze, surface area was not accounted for, and there was a range of sizes of the chicken pieces. Also, baking soda, which the Ancient Egyptians used, was not the best material for mummification. 


Kinetic Studies of Inhibition of ß-Lactamases

ß-lactamases are the principal agents of bacterial resistance to many penicillins, cephalosporins, and other ß-lactam antibiotics. The main objective is to understand the interactions of class A and C ß-lactamases as they interact with ß-lactam antibiotics in order to model a non-ß-lactam inhibitor into the active site. This would stop the hydrolytic power of ß-lactamases and rejuvenate ß-lactam antibiotics.

The antibiotics used were benzylpenicillin and cephalotin. Steady-state kinetics were carried out for the hydrolysis of antibiotics by two classes of ß-lactamases. Kinetic studies were also done to monitor hydrolysis of antibiotics in the presence of the inhibitor benzo[b]thiophene-2-boronic acid. Molecular modeling was carried out to investigate the interactions in the active site of the ß-lactamases and examine how the inhibitor's presence disrupts deacylation.

Kinetic results were analyzed to determine the Michaelis-Menten constants of KM, Vmax., and kcat of the two antibiotics. The dissociation constants, Ki, of the enzyme-inhibitor complex for both enzymes were also determined. The molecular modeling study revealed how a competitive inhibitor fits into the active sites. The modeling also identified the key interactions that made the two classes of ß-lactamases deacylation deficient when the inhibitor was present. 


The Relationship of Lead Levels in Soil and Blood

The purpose of this experiment is to determine the correlation between soil and blood lead levels, and determine factors that contribute to lead in the soil.

No blood samples were collected, handled, or tested by the student experimentalist. Data, not exclusively or specifically meant for this experiment was used. Collect soil samples from specified areas. Indicating area on individual maps of each home. Digest a ground I -gram dry portion of each sample in 10 ml of HN03 and 4 ml, of HCl. Place samples on hot plate for 30 minutes. Extract digested liquid and record volume. Dilute each sample to 100 ml, with Chelex water. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy find parts per million of lead in samples.

The hypothesis was proven wrong because the South Loop samples were altered during remodeling of the area. But Lincoln Park samples demonstrate the predicted dose-response relation. Having nearly half the average ppm of soil lead, and half the rate of elevated blood lead level prevalence in children. No strong trend was seen in the data which would identify a major contributor to soil lead. More extensive experimentation and research is needed to make a knowledgeable theory of both the correlation of lead levels in soil and blood, and those factors which contribute to soil lead. 


Does Mass Affect the Emergence of a Soybean Seed?

The purpose of this project is to determine if mass affects the emergence of a soybean seed. This experiment was set up to verify if the size of a soybean affects how it grows.

The procedure used was to select soybean seeds of five different masses. These samples shared the same genetics with equal moisture and equivalent potential germination as determined through tetrazolium testing. The masses of the samples were 220 milligrams (sample 1), 190 milligrams (sample 2), 150 milligrams (control), 110 milligrams (sample 3), and 70 milligrams (sample 4). A standard germination test was conducted to evaluate the speed and viability of each sample under ideal conditions. A hypocotyl elongation test was performed to determine the differences in emergence at a planting depth of 10 centimeters.

The results showed that the control grew the best in the standard germination and the hypocotyl elongation. Sample 2 and sample 3 were the best germinating seed sizes for both of the tests. Overall the 15 milligram seeds were the best but only by a small margin. Sample 4 grew the fastest in the standard germination. 


Do pH Levels Affect Plants Grown Hydroponically?

Hydroponics is growing plants without the use of soil. In order to successfully grow plants using hydroponics, pH, or potential hydrogen, levels supposedly must be in the 6.0-6.5 range according to books written on the subject of hydroponics. I decided to investigate the usage of pH levels in hydroponics to see what would happen if I grew plants with the pH level out of the optimum range. I had never heard of pH levels before as an issue when growing plants, and I wanted to see if pH levels were an essential part of growing plants.

I used a hydroponic method of cultivating called Water Culture, which is where a platform holds the plants directly on the nutrient solution. I regularly supplied the plants with water with a pH level of 6.0-6.5. When the plants became 5 centimeters tall, I supplied them with a nutrient solution. When the basil plants grew to be 5-10 centimeters tall, I started to use the variable of pH levels so I could see the affects of pH levels on growing plants with visible vegetation. Three separate dishpans were used, and each dishpan received a different pH level of 3.0, 6.0, or 9.0. The plants were then observed.

I can conclude from my experiment that pH levels do affect plant growth. The plants that received the pH levels of 3.0 and 9.0 suffered from nutrient deficiencies, while the plants that received the pH levels of 6.0 thrived. 


Growth of Algae in a Polluted Environment

Algae is an intricate member in the oceans' ecosystems. But today, pollutants are having effects on the growth rates of these species. This project will determine if two types of fertilizers will have any effect on the growth of the algae present in the given aquatic environment.

This project will consist of 4 control groups along with 10 experimental groups. The control groups will consist of 4, 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks filled to 150 ml with distilled water with 7.5 ml of nutrients. This will be introduced to 25C and a 40 waft grow light for 16 hours a day. The algae in the flasks will grow for 10 days. After the 10 days, it will be weighed. I will then be allowed to grow for 5 more days. For the experimental procedures, there will be 10 experimental groups introduced to organic and synthetic fertilizers. The 10 will have the same seven days to develop as the control group. At the end of the 7th day, organic fertilizer will be introduced into 5 of the experimental flasks, while synthetic fertilizer will be introduced to the other 5 experimental flasks. Each flask will be weighed at 8:00 PM after each of the 5 days.

It was concluded that the organic fertilizer had stunted the growth of the algae. The synthetic fertilizer aided the growth of the algae after the 5 day period. 


Inch by Inch, Row by Row, How Does Your Garden Grow?

The purpose of this experiment was to determine the concentration of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) that benefits growth in Zea mays (field corn) the most. Procedure:

To test my hypothesis I used five different concentrations of IAA (in ethanol), and a 0 M solution (as a control) and applied them to the plant's apical meristems daily. Each day, the height of the plant was measured. To decrease bias, statistical measures were used to eliminate outliers and variability in placement of the plants. Conclusion:

The results from my experiment, when plotted on a graph of molarity against change in height had a peak between 10-5 and 10-6 M. This means that the concentration of IAA that benefits growth the most in Zea mays is somewhere between 10-5 and 10-6 M. Due to the fact that no population parameters were available, the confidence level, and statistical significance of the results could not be acquired. However, according to the Law of Large Numbers, the results should be fairly close to the population parameters. These results aren't much by themselves but they stand as a starting ground for repetitions of this experiment. 


How Does the Viscosity of Lava Affect Its Flow Rate?

Purpose: The purpose of my experiment is to discover how viscosity affects the flow rate of lava. My results can benefit anyone interested in volcanology.

Procedure: The experiment begins by making a viscometer. Then pour room temperature water into the viscometer. Pull the pull top and put the bottle back on the jar. When the liquid reaches the start line start the timer and when it reaches the stop line stop the timer. Do two more trials with the same liquid. Then repeat the procedure for the rest of the liquids at room, heated, and chilled temperatures. Then calculate the viscosity index of all the liquids.

Conclusion: My hypothesis was proven correct. The data showed that liquids that are less viscous had faster flow rates than liquids that are more viscous. The data also proved heated liquids had faster flow rates than chilled liquids. 


Does Immersion Affect Conductivity?

Purpose: The purpose of my experiment is to test if the pH level of a solution has an effect on the conductivity of a piece of copper wire.


First, I determined the pH level of the solutions. I then tested the resistance of each solution using both the digital and the analog ohm meters. After that, I measured the pieces of copper wire to be the same weight and length. Next, I tested the pieces of copper using the digital and the analog meters to find their resistance before immersion. Then, I immersed the copper wire in 10 n-d of six different solutions of different pH levels, and checked each immersed wire with the two meters to see if the resistance of the wire changed.

Conclusion: The result of my experiment was that the conductivity of the wire was not significantly changed. Little fluctuations were seen. These small fluctuations were only seen by the analog meter. Many of the solutions with the wire immersed showed only small changes with both an increase and decrease, or no change at all. Overall, the pH level had no affect on the resistance/conductivity of the wire right away at all. Therefore, my hypothesis was not supported. 



Purpose: The purpose of this experiment is to characterize arabica coffee beans from different geographic origins using solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography (SPME GC).

Procedure: Four types of arabica coffee beans (Brazil, Colombia, Kenya, and Kona) were weighed, ground and placed in vials for headspace sampling three times each with three different types of SPME fibers: red (PDMS), blue (PDMS/DVB) and black (Carboxen/PDMS). The 36 fiber samples were then analyzed in a gas chromatograph. Based on peak areas and retention times, relative peak ratios were computed for selected compounds.

Conclusion: Fiber selection proved critical in the screening evaluation of solid phase microextraction. At 95% confidence level, there is statistical evidence the blue fiber and black fiber can detect differences in chemical compounds of arabica coffee beans. Therefore, the hypothesis that SPME-GC can be used to discriminate between arabica coffee beans of different geographic origins was correct. Further studies with a mass spectrometer are necessary to identify the actual compounds represented by the peaks. Additionally, the significant differences noted with the blue and black fibers must be validated using additional coffee samples and possible refinements in technique to substantiate the commercial feasibility of this procedure to detect adulteration of coffees from different origins. 


Synthesis of User and Eco-Friendly Hypervalent Iodine Reagents

Purpose: Conducting reactions, especially industrial scale ones, in eco-friendly solvents is of paramount importance to the well being of our environment. The purpose of this project is to identify and synthesize an oxidizing agent effective in water and other user-friendly solvents.

Procedure: Hypervalent iodine reagents are powerful oxidizing agents. The experimenter carried out several chemical reactions to structurally modify known hypervalent iodine reagents to make them soluble in water or eco-friendly solvents. Two different strategies were employed. The first method involved attaching a hypervalent iodine moiety to a water-soluble polymer (G1 Starburst® dendrimer). The second method involved directly modifying the known o-iodoxybenzoic acid (IBX) through the introduction of a hydrophilic group.

Conclusion: The first approach provided a polymer with appended iodoxybenzene moieties, which was insoluble in water. The second approach successfully yielded a structurally modified IBX which dissolves in water. Oxidation reactions using this reagent is currently underway. 


Optimal Computer Memory

The purpose of this work is to determine how much memory (RAM) is sufficient to obtain the maximum performance from a personal computer system for a large word processing operation.

Procedurally, a set of computers with different processor speeds was used in timing a large MS Word operation. The experiment was run multiple times with varying amounts of main memory available to Windows 98. Four experimental runs were made at each memory increment, with the first being discarded to allow a steady state to be achieved. Unnecessary processes were exited in Windows 98 to control unrelated memory usage.

The conclusion of this experiment is that beyond a given amount of memory, additional increments of memory will result in little or no improvement in processing speed regardless of the speed of the processor, memory, and disk. That is the speed of the processor, memory, and disk on the computer may result in faster execution of a given MS Word operation, but the point at which that operation approaches a minimum execution time on a given computer will occur at approximately the same amount of available memory on all computers. This amount of memory will be large enough for the working set for the experiment. 


Which Audio Compression is the Best?

The purpose of my experiment is to find out which audio compression format is the best, MP3, QuickTime, or Real Audio? The experimenter predicts that MP3 will be the best.

Tested subjects will sit in a specific place with the volume at a certain number. Then the experimenter will explain all the important information is on audio compression. They will compare each sample to the reference (WAV file) and mark on their score sheet if they think that the sample is the same, in-between or worse then the reference (rating it between one and five, five being the best, or the same as the reference, and one being the worst). Their score paper also will have places to indicate their age, sex, name, date and places to mark their ratings.

My conclusions were that QuickTime was the preferred audio compression format. This was not as hypothesized. If there were more time to work on the project, the experimenter would do different types of music and have more specific age groups. 


The Use of Computer Programming Languages to Search for Prime Numbers

The purpose of this experiment was to determine which computer programming language is most efficient in searching for prime numbers.

Four computer programs were written that search for prime numbers between one and 100,000,000 using the languages BASIC, C, Java and Perl. The programs were run three times and timed while they ran. Their memory use was also measured in kilobytes.

It was concluded that Perl was the least efficient language, followed by BASIC. C used less memory than Java, but Java ran consistently faster than C, therefore neither language was concluded more efficient, although both were more efficient than Perl and BASIC. 


Protein Secondary Structure Prediction

PURPOSE: The purpose of this project was to develop a method for protein secondary structure prediction. It was hypothesized that this method, using amino acid sequences as input, would give a prediction accuracy of over 80% for classifying three structures: alpha helices, beta sheet structure, and others.

PROCEDURE: First a method based on artificial neural networks for secondary structure prediction was proposed. Then, a program to simulate this method was developed using Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0. The input for this program was created manually from a set of 19 proteins. Seventeen proteins were used for training the network and two proteins were used for testing.

CONCLUSION: The hypothesis was rejected based on the results of a 59% prediction accuracy. It seems that amino acid identity and sequence position alone do not appear to provide the neural network with enough information to make predictions with high degree of accuracy. To improve prediction performance, other factors, such as amino acid properties, must also be used for training the neural network. 


Does Preconceived Color-Flavor Association Affect the Way We Perceive Taste?

Purpose: The purpose of this experiment is to see if preconceived color-flavor associations affect the perception of taste. It will be tested on 2nd and 8th graders. The experimenter will compare the results of the two grades to see if there is a difference.

Procedure: The experimenter will make seven boxes of vanilla pudding and dye six of the samples with flavorless icing tint. The last will be left undyed to serve as the control. Then the samples will be tasted by ten second graders and ten eighth graders with a sip of water between. The experimenter will ask the test subjects what flavor each sample is and record the answers. The experimenter will then repeat the test with the colors in a different order.

Conclusion: The majority of the test subjects made color-influenced guesses, such as chocolate for brown and lemon for yellow. One second graders and five eighth graders thought that several samples were the same, but no one knew that the samples were all vanilla. Based on the results of this experiment, the experimenter concludes that color has a large influence on taste perception. 


Driver Dilemma

Through conducting this project in a valid manner, my intention is to infer which golf ball provides for the most complete all-around performance. I intend to do this by comparing averages taken from tests in three key performance categories: distance, spin, and consistency. Each ball will be hit on a consistent basis using an apparatus constructed specifically for this project. Through extensive research, I am able to predict that the Wilson and Precept/Nike balls will rule out the three tests due to their use of more reactive materials and their blend anatomies, which produce a higher consistency level.

To test my experiment, a swing machine was built to hit each ball the same. We used a large, open space for the testing, which included trials in the distance and spin categories. There were three balls from each brand, and each was hit three times for a total of 9 hits for a brand in each test (distance and spin). To find a ball's range of consistency, the difference between the shortest and longest measurements in each test was taken and they were averaged together. This was done for each brand and model.

In my experimentation process, I attempted to discover which golf ball would help to boost a golfer's performance the most. Upon concluding my tests, I was able to draw some interesting results. My hypothesis that the Wilson and Precept balls would rule my comparison was reasonably supported; these balls came in first and third. I am now also able to state which golf balls are best in certain categories based upon what's behind their cover. 


Perception vs. Performance of Acne Products

PURPOSE: There were three purposes of this project. The first purpose was to determine which acne treatment students expected to be the most effective. It was hypothesized that students would not expect one acne treatment to perform better than the others. The second purpose was to determine which acne treatment was most effective in treating Acne vulgaris caused by Propionibacterium acnes. It was hypothesized that all acne treatments would be equally effective with regard to potency. The third purpose was to determine which acne treatment was the most cost effective. It was hypothesized that all acne treatments would cost the same.

PROCEDURE: The hypotheses were tested by (1) conducting a student survey regarding their experiences with and beliefs about acne creams, and (2) conducting a laboratory experiment. After the student survey was conducted, a culture of Propionibacterium acnes was obtained, then grown out on nutrient agar plates. Cotton disks, which were embedded with several different kinds of over-the-counter acne creams, were placed on the cultured disks. After incubating the plates for 24 hours, the "zones of inhibition" (where the cream prevented growth of the P. acne) were measured around each disk. Cost comparisons were calculated based on cost per ounce of cream.

CONCLUSION: Students believed that name brand creams are most effective. Experimental data showed that creams with equal concentrations of benzoyl peroxide were equally effective. Name brand creams were more expensive than generic or unfamiliar creams even though they did not treat acne more effectively. 


Keep on Rolling: Motor Oil's "Roll" in Reducing Kinetic Friction

The purpose of this experiment is to determine which brand of motor oil works most efficiently in reducing kinetic friction, when surfaces are in motion. I hypothesize that Pennzoil brand will reduce kinetic friction most practically due to its stop-and-go formula.

In order to test this, I chose five different motor oil brands, all of the same grade 5W-30, and as a control used nothing. I individually spread 100ml of each oil onto a metal surface and rolled a 500 g weight, attached to a Newton measurer, through the oil. Each brand was tested in 25 trials, totaling with 150 experiments. This device measured the amount of Newton, or pull, which would eventually be plugged into the final equations for the amount of kinetic friction.

The lowest final answer from the equation represented which oil reduced kinetic friction the most. My hypothesis was correct, for Pennzoil had the lowest number, .98. However, all of the brands were close in range 1.02-1.08. The control ranked the highest- 1.44. In conclusion, all motor oils basically work equally effective in reducing kinetic friction if they are certified by the API. 


The Effect of Temperature, Relative Humidity, and Air Pressure on the Size and Shape of Snow Crystals

Purpose: The purpose of this experiment is to determine how three atmospheric conditions, temperature, relative humidity, and air pressure, effect the size and shape of snow crystals.




1. To catch and preserve falling snow, apply a coat of Krylon Crystal Clear acrylic paint to one surface of about five microscope slides. While the acrylic paint is still in a liquid state, set the coated slides in an open area where snowflakes can land on them. After several snowflakes have landed on the slides, place the slides in the box to prevent an over crowding of flakes on the slides. Wait an hour for the spray to dry.

2. As soon as you have caught the snow crystals, record the temperature, air pressure, and relative humidity by looking at your outdoor weather instruments. Record the readings in a weather journal for future reference.

3. Repeat this procedure several times under different conditions to collect a variety of snow crystal types.

4. A replica of the crystals will be left on the slides from when it snowed. Study the slides under a microscope to measure the size of several snow crystals (in millimeters) and determine the types. This will enable you to determine how temperature, relative humidity, and air pressure effect the size and type of snow crystals.

Conclusion: Temperature has a direct impact on crystal size. For three of the crystal types that were observed (dendrites, plates, and stellars) there was a general increase in the average size of snow crystals as the temperature increased. However, the average crystal size for column-type crystals was observed to get smaller as temperature increased.



Relative Humidity has a direct impact on crystal type. The crystals were shown to get increasingly complex as the humidity level decreased. Column-like crystals formed at high humidity levels, while plate-like structures formed at lower humidity levels.

Air pressure also had a direct impact on crystal type. Crystal complexity was shown to increase as air pressure increased. It appeared that highly complex crystals require higher levels of pressure in order to form into such intricate shapes. 


What Materials Cleans Up Oil Spills The-Best?

The purpose of this science project is to research a notable oil spill and its impact on our environment. An experiment will be done to test which material is the most absorbent in cleaning up oil spills.

The procedure began by filling eight containers with water and adding oil to each container. Eight materials of equal size were tested at the same time. They were dipped into the containers to absorb the oil. Each material was lifted from the oil at the same time. The amount of oil left floating on the water was measured. This procedure was repeated three times each, in fresh water and salt water. The results were put into a bar graph to show how well each material absorbed.

In conclusion, one material absorbed more oil than the others. This type of experiment helps provide information to keep the environment clean. 


Is Synthetic Coal More Energy Efficient than Natural Coal?

The purpose of the project was to investigate if synthetic coal is more energy efficient than natural coal. This experiment may reduce the amount and type of coal we use today.

For the procedure of the experiment, first create a calorimeter with a hole in the top in order to fit a thermometer through it. Place one gram of coal into a crucible with holes in the bottom. Heat the coal over a Bunsen burner for two minutes. Next, place the crucible under the fume hood and put a beaker holding ten milliliters of distilled water over the crucible using a small can and wire gauze. Place the calorimeter over the set up and make sure that the thermometer is suspended into the water in the beaker. Record the starting temperature of the water and use the formula for specific heat in order to calculate the energy (in Joules) produced. Repeat these steps, twenty-five times with each coal.

Supported by the data, the hypothesis is incorrect. Synthetic coal is less energy efficient than natural coal. This may occur because the polymer in synthetic coal may be somewhat flammable and cause the coal to release its energy faster. 



Purpose: The purpose of this experiment was to determine the distances as to which an average person's footsteps, an inflated spherical projectile, and a stationary bicycle could be detected by a home-constructed seismograph. It was hypothesized that they could be detected at 5, 7, and 9 meters respectively.

Procedure: After the proper amount of research and deductive prototypes a home-constructed seismograph was conducted, and 3 experiments were conducted under controlled conditions. Ten trials were conducted to determine the distances as to which an average person's footsteps, an inflated spherical projectile, and a stationary bicycle could be measured and detected via the seismograph.

Conclusion: The seismograph was able to detect the a person's footsteps from approximately 5 meters farther than the predicted value, the basketball's vibrations approximately 7 meters farther than predicted, and the stationary bicycle could be measured an average 5 meters farther than the predicted value. 


Can Bluetooth Cut It!

Purpose: This experiment's purpose was to determine whether the following objects block 2.4 GHz radio transmissions: microwave oven, drywall, human, foil-faced foam sheathing, saltwater-filled aquarium, and freshwater-filled aquarium.

Procedure: An object was placed between a 2.4 GHz transmitter and receiver. The effect of blocking objects on received signal intensity was demonstrated in two related experiments. First, data were recorded with the transmitter at five measured intervals from the receiver, with the blocking object positioned at a fixed location. Second, with the transmitter at a fixed distance from the receiver, data were recorded with the blocking object placed at five measured intervals from the transmitter. Control experiments were performed without a blocking object in place. To verify data accuracy, "time trials" --measurements taken at a fixed distance in rapid succession--were performed. Wave intensities were recorded in millivolts on an oscilloscope.

Conclusion: An object's blocking effect was a function of its composition and position relative to the transmitter. Except for the drywall, all objects tested significantly attenuated the 2.4 GHz radio wave signal received. The experiment showed an inverse relationship between an object's distance from the transmitter and attenuation of the 2.4 GHz radio wave. 


Reflection Detection

The purpose of my experiment was to find out what materials would reflect the most light intensity of a laser.

First, I installed the PSL Accelerator into the computer. I put the probe and laser in holes at the opposite side of a shoebox. Next, I reflected the laser off of blue Mylar, yellow Mylar, purple Mylar, a mirror, each side of a CD. The computer recorded the intensity of the laser light reflected.

According to my data, I have determined the following items to reflect laser light intensity from greatest to least, a mirror, computer readable CD side, a red label on a CD, and Mylar. 


The Effects of Varied Designs of Water Wheels on the Level of Hydroelectric Power Produced.

The purpose of this experiment was to compare the effects of varied designs of water wheels in creating hydroelectric power.

Four sets of blades were soldered to gerbil wheels. Each of the four sets of blades had the same total surface area: twelve narrow flat blades, twelve narrow curved blades, six wide flat blades, and six wide curved blades. Each wheel had an axle through its center and was set in a wooden trough. A water pump was attached to the trough with inlet and outlet hoses. The trough was tilted, then filled with water. A generator and voltmeter were attached to a gear on the water wheel. Voltage during four one-minute trials was recorded and averaged for each water wheel.

In conclusion, the narrow flat-bladed wheel produced the 2nd most electricity because of the greater number of blades in contact with the water current at any given time. The wheel with wide curved blades produced the second least amount of electricity possibly due to less drag on the back sides of the blades as they came out of the water. The wheel with wide flat blades produced the least amount of electricity. The wider blades dipped deeper into the water, and actually lifted more water, causing more drag than either of the other two types of blades. The narrow curved-bladed wheel produced the most electricity due to the number of blades and the shape which was explained with the wide curved-bladed wheel. 


How the Number of Passes through the Heat Exchanger Affects the Outlet Temperature from the Exchanger

The purpose of my experiment was to determine how the number of passes through a heat exchanger affects the inlet and outlet temperature difference. Additionally, I wanted to see whether warm or hot water had the highest temperature change.

First, I would connect all the tubes and put the funnel, bucket, and valve in place. Next, I would fill the bucket with water and ice to keep a constant temperature. For the warm water test, I would fill two beakers full of regular tap water. For hot water tests, I would first boil water, and then mix that with warm water. Finally, I would pour the water into the funnel, but also at the same time my assistant would start the stop watch right when I started pouring the water. After the test I would take the temperature of the outlet water and then record that and the time in my spiral.

My conclusion was that the more passes through the exchanger raised the difference between the inlet temperature and the outlet temperature. Also, I concluded that the hot water temperature decreased more than the warm water temperature did. This proved both of my hypotheses correct. 


The Effect of Kiln Dust and Slag in Concrete

Purpose: The purpose of this research was to investigate the impact of cement kiln dust and ground granulated blast furnace slag as partial replacements for cement in concrete. The experimental regime examined the following properties: heat hydration rate and initial set time, pore structure, and compressive strength. The replacement of cement by kiln dust and slag could help the environment through the recycled use of waste products.

Procedure: Cement pastes and mortars containing varying percentages of kiln dust and/or slag were prepared with a constant water to binder ratio of 0.50. Heat of hydration tests were performed for 100 hours, porosity testing was done at 7, 21, and 28 days, and compression testing at 7, 14, and 28 days.

Conclusion: Overall, the general hypothesis was only partially supported. The research data fully supported seven of the sub-hypotheses and partially supported an eighth. One sub-hypothesis was found to be incorrect. 15% cement kiln dust seemed to be optimal for all levels of slag replacement for porosity and compressive strength. 


The Biological Control of Purple Loosestrife

Purpose: The biological control, of a foreign plant, with its natural enemy without harming the native plants of North America. To determine if any stage in the beetle, Galerucella calmariensis and Galerwcella pusilla life cycle will feed only on purple loosestrife, Lathrum salicaria, or if it will feed on agricultural crops in North America.

Procedure: Mark the top of the petri dish into six even quadrants, Place the filter paper in the petri dish and wet it. Mold the paper to the shape of the dish. Hole punch six of each plants being tested, and place into separate quadrants. Label the quadrants a through f and mark down the information on your data sheet. Setup the trial three times with different petri dishes. Make sure that quadrant one contains the purple loosestrife plants for a control. Into each dish release five beetles. Repeat above procedure and release five larvas for second set of trial data. Observe the results in twelve and twenty-four hour time 1 periods. Record your results both written and with the use of a digital camera.

Conclusion: The feeding pattern of the beetles, G. calmariensis and G. pusilla, in test one and two showed that they are host specific to the purple loosestrife, L. salicaria. The feeding pattern of the larva, G. calmariensis and G. pusilla, in test one showed that they are host specific to the purple loosestrife, L. salicaria. The data collected demonstrates that the two Galerucella species are key factors for host specific biological control. Adult and larval leaf damage greatly reduces the photosynthetic capability of purple loosestrife, possibly leading to reduced starch stores in the roots which can result in winter plant death. They will control the population of purple loosestrife and therefore should prove useful as a suitable agent for successful biological control in North America. The herbivores characteristic feeding pattern of both the adult beetle and the immature larva based on the results should have no effect on the agricultural crops of North America. 


H20: Achieving the Ultimate Pure

The purpose of this experiment is to determine which method of water purification, filtration, distillation, or solar pasteurization, is most efficient by treating tap and Chicago River water for pH, chlorine, total hardness, nitrate, phosphate, ammonia nitrogen, copper, and iron. These processes will also be tested to determine their effectiveness of removing E. coli B that has been previously introduced into sterile water,-Efficiency will be measured by the quality, speed, and cost of each water purification process. The controls will be commercially distilled or sterilized water.

First, one must run a preliminary test on tap and river water for the various contaminants listed above using specified titrants, reagents, and meters. Then one must put the tap and river water samples through the processes of solar pasteurization via a solar box cooker, distillation, and filtration via an activated carbon filter. The contaminant tests are repeated on the treated water samples. One must then take the test tube with E. coli B bacteria and perform sterile procedure to allow it to multiply in nutrient broth, before inoculating it in 4 separate jars of sterile water. One jar is left untreated, another is to be pasteurized, the second is to be distilled, and the third is to be filtered. Then one must gather 20 petri plates prepared with EMB agar and plate 5 petri plates each with untreated and treated inoculated waters.

The exhibitor's conclusion is that distillation is most effective at removing contaminants, with filtration coming second and solar pasteurization coming in third. Solar pasteurization is the most time consuming, while distillation comes in second and filtration in first. The cheapest method of water purification was filtration, then came pasteurization, and finally distillation. The method that was best at killing bacteria was distillation, with filtration coming in second and pasteurization in third. The overall most efficient methods of water purification were distillation and filtration, while solar pasteurization was weak in three out of four areas. The exhibitor's hypothesis was proven partially incorrect. 


Is Bioremediation Effective in the Treatment of Soil Pollution?

The purpose of this experiment is to determine whether or not Azotobacter vinelandii can be used to bioremediate diesel fuel in soil. This would be accomplished by measuring the amount of bacteria] growth that occurred due to the presence of oil.

The experiment was performed by setting up 20 test tubes with soil and Azotobacter vinelandii, allowing them to achieve a constant growth and then exposing 10 to diesel fuel. Observations had to be recorded each day regarding any additional bacterial growth along the sides of the tubes.

In conclusion it was found that in the test tubes with diesel fuel, the bacterial growth exceeded that of the tubes without oil by an average of 6.87 cm sq. It became apparent that the bacteria with the diesel fuel used it as a source of energy and furthermore was able to bioremediate it. On the other hand the bacteria without the oil showed very little signs of growth and eventually stopped growing altogether due to a lack of an energy source. Also the amount of oil per test tube decreased significantly from the staring I ml to .l8mL. 


Generational effects of acid rain on Drosophila melanogaster

Purpose: The purpose of this experiment was to test the effects of acid rain on several generations of living organisms. This researcher was interested in exploring whether mutations, found in an acid environment would also be observed if the offspring were removed from the acid environment into a neutral environment. Drosophila melanogaster were selected as subjects, due to their short life span, ease of use and similarity to human genetics. As insects inhabit the primary levels of the food chain, mutations observed on the Drosophila melanogaster would influence the rest of the chain.

Procedure: Six generations of Drosophila melanogaster were grown in acid mediums ranging from 5.5 pH to 4.5 pH at increments of 0.5. Each generation was grown for 10 days and examined for population size and mutations.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that acid rain increases the population size and produces mutations. Further, percentage decreases in mutations were observed when generations were returned from an acid environment to a neutral one. 


Which Parent Affects Fingerprint Pattern Types More?

The purpose of my project is to find out if the male parent or the female parent affects the offspring's fingerprints more.

First, I spread two drops of ink with a roller onto a plexiglas slab. I then rolled the subject's fingers, one at a time, in the ink, and then rolled them on the card in each individual box. I made sure that a pattern type was visible in each print, or it was taken over. Next, I studied each print and labeled it with a pattern type. Then I compared the families' cards.

The results of my experiment showed that the male parent affects the fingerprints of the offspring more than the female parent does. This directly contradicted my hypothesis. However, I am reluctant to conclude that this result will be consistent in a larger testing group of families. Let me explain. As you can see, my results were fairly even. The male parent did dominate the fingerprints slightly; however, the male parent did not dominate by a large margin of families, in fact, in my study it was only one more than the female parent. I have found no pattern whatsoever in the amount of shared fingerprints between father and child or mother and child. Nothing in my results convinces me that the father will dominate families' fingerprints consistently. In the law of segregation, one gene from each of the parents form a pair in the sex cell. It is just as likely for the father to give the dominant gene as for the mother to give it. I do not believe that whether the mother or the father gives the dominant gene can be predicted, and further testing beyond my project would be necessary to determine if there is a tendency toward fingerprint dominance by one sex or the other. 


Chefís Choice

PURPOSE: The purpose of this project is to determine which popular method of cooking - steaming, broiling, or frying (without oil) - leaves the least fat on ground beef so as to reduce the amount of fat consumption. More people could live healthier by cooking the way that allowed them to take the least fat in.

PROCEDURE: I cooked a total of 75 pieces of 4.5 cm x 4. 5 cm x 1. 5 cm of 30 grams of ground- beef using each of the standard methods of broiling, steaming, and frying, so I cooked 25 pieces (in tests of 5 each time) for each method. I stirred each piece for 20 ~ minutes with 50 ml gasoline to dissolve the fat. I then poured the liquid into a petri dish and set it out for 120 hours to evaporate.

CONCLUSION: The analysis of the results supports -my hypothesis. Indeed, broiling left the least fat, with an average of 3.0544 grams, followed by steaming, with 4.2544 grams, and then frying, with 5.0232 grams. In order to lower the risk of heart disuse, weight and cholesterol problems, and reduce the number of very-low-density lipoproteins in the body, one should cook their food by broiling, occasionally steaming, and avoid frying. 


Garlic's Effect on Planaria Regeneration

Purpose: The purpose of this experiment is to determine the effect of garlic on planaria regeneration, and to determine if varying concentrations have different effects. It can be hypothesized that garlic will increase the regeneration rate because it improves health, but that too much garlic for too long will cease to be beneficial.

Procedure: To do this experiment, one must transversely bisect forty planarians. There should be two planarian halves in each of ten petri dishes for each of three solutions of garlic (0.001%, 0.0001%, and 0.00001%), plus ten dishes containing pure spring water for the control group. Every four days, the length of each planarian half is to be recorded.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that garlic significantly increases the rate of planaria regeneration in concentrations of 0.00001%, 0.0001%, and 0.001%, especially at the beginning of the experiment. On day 17, the most dilute garlic concentration also significantly increased regeneration, and the increase in size from the other concentrations can be assumed to be important. After that, the garlic stopped being so beneficial, and most died by day 25, demonstrating the dangers of using an excessive amount of garlic, especially when one's body is not suited for the substance. 


The Regulation of Rnase H in Epithelial Cells

PURPOSE: Ribonuclease H is an enzyme that may be useful as a treatment for breast cancer because it can stop the production of estrogen in tumor cells. To find more about this enzyme, the purpose of this experiment was to determine if translation and transcription of RNA in cells affects the levels of Ribonuclease H (RNase H).

PROCEDURE: Cells were treated with actinomycin, a chemical that inhibits transcription of RNA, or Puromycin, which inhibits translation. After about a week of growth, the cells were counted and assayed for the amounts of RNase H. Tritium, a radioactive isotope of Hydrogen, was bonded to each RNase H molecule. Then the RNase H was counted using a scintillation counter, which measures emissions of light from the tritium as it decays. These emissions of light are directly proportional to the amount of RNase H.

CONCLUSION: The counts per minute of RNase H show that the levels in cells treated with Actinomycin and Puromycin were not significantly different than those treated with estradiol. This means that neither translation nor transcription of proteins affect Ribonuclease H, so RNase H must be regulated in the post-translation phase, where proteins are refined into their final products. 


The Effect of Tip Radius on Crack Propagation

The purpose of my project was to discover if cracks in plexiglass could be stopped by enlarging the crack tip radius, or drilling a hole at the end of the crack.

The brief procedure of my experiment is as follows, First, the apparatus with which to stress the plexiglass is constructed. Then, the pieces of plexiglass are prepared for testing. A crack is initiated in each of the six strips. A hole is drilled at the end of three of the cracks. Next, the plexiglass is stressed in a cantilevered position, using the apparatus. More and more stress is put on the- strip, until it fails. The stressing is repeated on the other pieces, and results are recorded.

I concluded that cracks in plexiglass with large tip radii propagate less than cracks in plexiglass with small tip radii. My results supported my hypothesis. In my hypothesis, I predicted that the cracks with large tip radii (a hole drilled at the tip) would be stronger than the cracks with small tip radii (a normal crack). My results supported this in that the pieces with cracks that had small tip radii failed at an average of 7.705 Kg of stress and the pieces of plexiglass with cracks that had large tip radii failed at an average of-3.292 Kg of stress. 


SOAKING WET: Water Absorption in Woods and Benefits of Surface Coatings

The purpose was to compare 7 types of woods in their ability to resist water absorption, to measure the benefits of latex paint and oil stain, and determine which one is better for reducing water absorption. The woods' rates of air-drying were also measured.

The procedure was split into two parts. The first involved preparing 14 of 21 pieces of wood by applying the stain and paint, then placing all pieces in corresponding containers filled with water, and checking weight of the woods daily, during a 34-day period. The second part was drying the woods to determine how much of the water they retained.

I concluded that the latex paint worked the best in reducing water absorption. The oil stain increased water absorption in some woods. While Cedar absorbed the least in the plain group, in the two, coated groups, Mahogany absorbed the least. Maybe, the coatings interacted the best with the cell structure of Mahogany. Common uses of some of the different woods studied are consistent with their water absorption characteristics. I also concluded that for the plain woods, the density of the wood did not have a direct correlation to the amount of water absorption. 


The Effects of Annealing on Stainless Steel

The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect that annealing had on the atomic structure and magnetism of stainless steel.

To perform this experiment, small squares, 2.5 x 2.5 cm, of 304 ferritic stainless steel were heated until they reached desired temperatures. Once the desired temperature was reached, the sample of stainless steel was placed in an X-ray diffraction machine and the diffraction pattern was taken. Using Bragg's law, the intensity of the atoms was determined by the angular peaks visible in the diffraction pattern. Once the atom intensity and major peaks were known, the structure of the stainless steel was calculated through Miller's Indices. Also, the grain size of the steel particles was determined using Scherrer's formula. The magnetism of the steel was tested by holding a magnet near the steel and measuring the farthest distance of the attraction.

The experiment proved that through annealing, the structure of stainless steel changed from body- centered cubic to face-centered cubic after annealing, and the phase changed from ferritic to austenitic stainless steel. The grain size of the material increased as the steel changed from body-centered cubic to face- centered cubic. Once the stainless steel was annealed, the magnetism was lost. 


Plating sacrificial corrosion resistance

The corrosion resistance of steel can be increased with the application of a sacrificial coating by electrolysis. Since different types of coatings have different properties, each would protect the underlying steel to various degrees and lengths of time. Previous experimentation has shown the protection capabilities of zinc on steel (galvanized steel). This experimentation will examine the corrosion resistance of zinc as a sacrificial coating with chromium when electroplated on steel.

Identically-sized steel panels are electroplated with zinc and chromium. Plating thickness is measured using x-ray fluorescence. According to standards of the ASTM Designation B 117, the test panels are placed in a salt spray fog chamber at 35 degrees Celsius. These are observed at half-hour intervals and notations of failure are made. Upon completion of experimentation, plating thickness and salt spray hours were compared.

Despite the inconsistency of plating thickness in the controlled test preparation, the addition of chromium to zinc-plated products under the ASTM Designation B 117 increases corrosion protection when plated at the most optimum conditions, particularly by increasing amperage per square foot and plating time. 


To Buy or Not to Buy? That is the Question

Purpose and Hypothesis: The purpose of this project is to find out if there is a direct correlation between the price of a stock and its earnings. In the experiment, the stocks from the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) with SEC Edgar Online Filings available will be used to represent the typical stock.

Procedure: After creating and gathering information to fill in spreadsheets with important data about the history of twenty-seven stocks from the DJIA, a formula can be used to determine the correlation between the price and the earnings of each of those stocks. By comparing the results, it is possible to determine if there is a relationship and what the relationship is.

Conclusion: Upon conclusion of the analysis of data, the experimenter concluded that the original hypothesis was proven incorrect. That is to say, the price of a stock is not materially affected by the company's historical earnings. 


Should teachers use multiple choice tests?

Purpose: The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effectiveness of multiple choice tests by comparing the score that a group of students achieve when taking a multiple choice to the score they achieve when rolling a die to determine the questionís answer.

Procedure: The experimenter used the following procedure: 

1. Collect all materials needed for the experiment;



2. Prepare a 20 question multiple choice test that covered material that would be known by 4th and 5th graders; prepare an answer sheet for the students tore cord the results of 20 dice role;

3. Get permission from teachers to perform the experiment on students in their classes and distribute permission forms; 
4. Introduce himself and the project to the class, ask the students for their cooperation; 
5. Take a group of 6 students into the hall; distribute the tests; distribute the dice; have students roll a die and record the results; have students take a multiple choice portion of the test; collect the test and answer; 
6. Repeat step 5 until all the students were tested.



7. Take the test and answer sheets and put them with the rest of the data and information that was collected; . 
8. Correct the master test; enter master into a data base; enter each test and answer sheet into a data base; correct the test and answer sheets against the master; 
9. Extract results to a spreadsheet; create graphs; analyze the results;
10. Draw conclusions for the project and wrap up of the Science Project

Conclusion: In conclusion, the experimenter's hypothesis was wrong. Students do not usually do well as well rolling a die when answering multiple choice questions when they actually answer the questions themselves. However, 23% or 17 of the students tested did as well or better on the test when they rolled the dice. However, these students had very low scores on the multiple choice test itself. So, students who have a minimal performance on a multiple choice test may do as well by rolling a dice. 


Analytical Examination of Conics

Purpose: To determine an analytical method that can be used to predict the shape of the duals of conic sections.

Procedure: Find a formula, D, from the equation of the dual of a general conic, and the formula f2 - ac. Determine the sign of D and the position of the origin for a randomly selected conic. Repeat this with many randomly selected ellipses, parabolas, and hyperbolas. 

Conclusion: The relationship determined during experiments supported the original hypothesis that D can be used to predict the type of the dual conic. Because no error was encountered in experimentation, it was conjectured that this relationship could be proven to be always true by using mathematical deductive methods. 


Home vs. Away

Purpose - To determine whether a home court advantage exists in the NBA.

Procedure - Collect NBA statistics pertaining to the home wins, home losses, away wins, and away losses for each season from 1949-1999. Enter the data into a spreadsheet. Conduct chi-square tests for each individual season. Calculate the chi-square value for all the fifty seasons combined.

Conclusion - The total chi-squared statistic was calculated to be 1223.07, which was compared to the critical table value (7.88) for chi-squared (X2 ) at I degree of freedom and at the .005 confidence/ significance level. The null hypothesis of no home court advantage could be safely rejected because the calculated value was larger. The data provides sufficient evidence that there is a large enough discrepancy between what was expected and the actual results. Therefore, the differences among the home wins and visitor (away) losses were too large to be credited to chance alone. The probability that X2 is less that the critical value is I in 200. The chi-squared test results give the freedom to state that the chances of a home court advantage in the NBA are 99.995 percent pure. 



The purpose of my project is to determine which disinfectant works the best. I tested Clorox bleach, 409, and Lysol.

The use-dilution method was used in this experiment. Dilutions of direct, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32, 1/64, and control (water) were made for each of the disinfectants. A culture of Salmonella typhimurium was poured into a Petri dish along with pins and allowed to dry. Next the pins were placed into the tubes of dilutions. After 10 minutes they were transferred to tubes with water. Finally the pins were placed into tubes with trypticase soy broth after another 10 minutes, and incubated for 48 hours. The tubes were rated + for growth and - for no growth.

Clorox bleach was the most effective. Its highest dilution without growth was 1/64. 409 was second with 1/32, and Lysol was effective up to 1/16. 1 think Clorox bleach was the most effective because it contained sodium hypochlorite. Sodium hypochlorite kills bacteria better than alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride, which is the active ingredient in Lysol and 409. Also Clorox has the highest percent of the active ingredient. I would recommend Clorox for someone to use because it is the most effective and cheapest, but 409 would be adequate. There might have been mistakes in pipetting, but I did my best to avoid these. Also there is no way to make sure each pin has the same number of bacteria on it. However, I am certain that my results are correct because all the trials were consistent. I would be interested in tested other disinfectants in the future. 


How Sweet it Is!

The purpose of this experiment was to determine which sugar yeast ferments the best. I tested three trials each of glucose, fructose, and sucrose.

The way the amount of fermentation was measured was by collecting the carbon dioxide produced during fermentation. Because alcohol and carbon dioxide are produced during alcoholic fermentation, the amount of carbon dioxide produced is proportional to the amount of sugar fermented. The carbon dioxide produced was collected in the arm of the fermentation tube. The arms of the tube were marked in tenths of a milliliter

The results of the experiment concluded that while glucose began fermenting at a faster rate than either fructose or sucrose, by 100 minutes sucrose had produced the same amount of gas as glucose - 1.70 mi. At the end of the experiment glucose and sucrose had both produced 2.37 ml of gas while fructose had produced 2.13 ml. While the differences seen in fermentation were consistent throughout the experiment, they were not great. 


Internal Selection vs. Random Mutation as Causes of Ampicillin Resistance in E. coli

Purpose: To determine whether E. coli can catalyze favorable mutations under stressful conditions, specifically for Ampicillin resistance.

Procedure: Five groups of E. coli (-pAMP) were exposed to three rounds of Ampicillin with recovery time in between. The plasmid pAMP, which causes resistance to Ampicillin, was inserted into five groups of the same bacteria (+pAMP) and growth of the two groups was compared. An RFLP/gel electrophoresis analysis was performed comparing the DNA restriction patterns on the two groups.

Conclusion: One series of -pAMP bacteria demonstrated resistance from the first round, a second from the second round, and the remaining three in the third round. The +pAMP bacteria were all resistant. Of four bands that appeared from gel electrophoresis, only one was different for the pAMP and +pAMT groups. The conclusion drawn was that the three simultaneous delayed developments of resistance in the -pAMP groups and the difference in gel electrophoresis results suggest a mixture of random and directed mutations as causes of resistance. Future variations on exposure to antibiotics can be done to obtain more conclusive results. Since there was data to support the possibility of a directed mutation, finishing medication becomes increasingly important in the fight against antibiotic resistance. 


Differential Regulation of the lac and ara operons in E. coli as Expressed by Blue and Green Fluorescence Proteins

Purpose: The purpose of this experiment was to understand the process by which the Green Fluorescence Protein gene and the Blue Fluorescence Protein gene is expressed (fluoresces) through both positive and negative regulation in E.coli when exposed to varying sugar media (e.g. IPTG, IPTG/glucose, arabinose/glucose).

Procedure: In each phase, E.coli competent cells were prepared and transformed with appropriate plasmids (pFB, pFG, pBR- Phase 1; pFB- Phase 2; pGLO- Phase 3). Agar plates containing each variable were prepared, and observations regarding growth and fluorescence were confirmed visually.

Conclusion: Phase One: The lac operon is inducible by the presence of IPTG; IPTG removes the lac repressor, and fluorescence occurs. Phase Two: It was concluded that the lac operon is not completely repressed by catabolite repression ("glucose effect"). The operon is not tightly regulated and therefore maintains a basal level of transcription. Phase Three: It was concluded that the ara operon is inducible by the presence of arabinose, which causes AraC to bind with AraL allowing transcription of the fluorescence protein to occur. The ara operon is also tightly regulated by the presence of glucose through catabolite repression. 


Hang Time

Purpose: The purpose of this experiment is to determine which ramp angle would launch a skateboard the furthest through the air.

Procedure: Four launch ramps were tested (20-degree angle, 35-degree angle, 45-degree angle, and 55-degree angle) using the following procedure. The skateboard was positioned at the top of the starting ramp and released so it would accelerate downward, level off, and then travel up the launch ramp and finally propel into the air. The experimenter marked the spot where the front wheel landed with a piece of tape. The distance from the bottom of the launch ramp to the tape was measured with a metric tape measure and the data was recorded. The procedure was repeated five times for each launch ramp.

Conclusion: The 35-degree angle ramp launched the skateboard the furthest. This was backed up by mathematical estimates. 


The Wind Turbine Design with Highest Wattage

Purpose: The purpose of this experiment is to determine which of the four tested types of horizontal-axis, upwind wind turbines delivers the highest wattage. Furthermore, this is a study of the efficiency of each model's design that individually differ in the different angles of attack for the wind to act upon towards the turbines' blades.

Procedure: The procedure involves the construction of wind turbines that deviate from each other only in the degrees that each are offset by at the hub connection. A constant wind velocity is supplied perpendicular to each model. The rotational energy, a result of the rotating blades, is processed through both an ampmeter, and a voltmeter that measures direct current from the turbine motor, and is sent through a low-voltage lightbulb. The recorded data for amperes and volts is analyzed to estimate a wattage rating for each model.

Conclusion: The conclusion is that the blade design with a ten degree blade offset had produced the highest wattage, followed by, in order, the five degree, the fifteen degree, and the twenty degree offset blade designs. Thus, the ten degree off set design achieves lift better than any of the other designs. 


Time Flies Like an Arrow, But Do Fruit Flies Like a Magnet?

The purpose of my project is to determine whether a strong varying magnetic field or a strong static magnetic field affects Drosophila melanogaster (common fruit fly). My results can be applied to people whose working conditions expose them to high magnetic fields.

I built an electromagnet by wrapping an insulated copper wire around a PVC pipe. Plugging the electromagnet into an AC source created a varying magnetic field. I created a static magnetic field by placing a PVC pipe between two permanent magnets. For control, I set another PVC pipe upright in a box. I placed a test tube containing fruit flies inside each pipe, so that the flies were exposed to either (1) varying magnetic field, (2) static magnetic field, (3) or no magnetic field (control). I counted larvae, pupae, and adult flies every other day.

My hypothesis is that strong magnetic fields will decrease the fruit fly population compared control. The varying magnetic field will have a stronger effect than the static magnetic field. My results led me to conclude that my hypothesis was correct. Flies exposed to varying magnetic field had the lowest population and the control group had the highest population of larvae, pupae, and adults. 


Daphnia: The Rise & Fall Of A Heartbeat

Purpose: The purpose of this project was to gauge the effects, if any that depressants and stimulants have on a Daphnia specimen's heart rate.


1. Take all of the testing substances and add 18.5 ml of spring water to 1 adult dose, and dissolve any pills. 
2. Fill 12 cups with 50 ml of spring water, and add 3 ml from the 12 mixtures in step 1, keep the 13'h cup as a control Oust water). 
3. Add 5 Daphnia specimens to each mixture. 
4. Take I Daphnia specimen and place it on a slide. Place the slide under the microscope. Count the number of heartbeats in a 15 second period and multiply your answer by 4, to obtain the number of heartbeats in I minute. 
5. Record all results, and repeat with the remaining 4 Daphnia specimens in the mixture. 
6. Repeat steps 5 and 6 with the remaining 12 mixtures. 
7. Record hourly readings of all Daphnia heart rates for 12 hours.

Conclusion: For the depressants test, the sleeping pill mixture lowered their heart rate the most, while the beer mixture lowered their heart rate the least. For the stimulant's test, the coffee mixture increased their heart rate the most, while the chocolate mixture increased their heart rate the least. 



Purpose - The purpose of this experiment was to analyze ORN regeneration by comparing changes in synaptophysin levels to previously tested morphometric OB and TH data. It was hypothesized that synaptophysin level changes in the OB should correlate with TH and morphometric OB data if synaptophysin levels are affected by ORN degeneration and regeneration.

Procedure - The ORN of 15 rats were lesioned and allowed to grow back for 3, 9, 16, 28, or 42 days (3 additional control rats were not lesioned). After SIU prepared the two sets of tissue, the student mounted the tissue on slides. The student then examined the synaptophysin slides and nonspecific IgG slides using the grayscale procedure, and the synaptophysin slides a second time using the threshold procedure. F-tests for variance and covariance were run.

Conclusion - Since none of the data was statistically significant, the proposed hypothesis was neither proved nor disproved. What can be concluded from this experiment is that a different procedure, such as a longer fixation time, should be used in order to effectively test whether or not synaptophysin levels correlate with other changes in the OB that result from ORN regeneration. 


Fat Chicks 2

The purpose of this experiment is to determine if there is a relationship between the time a chicken hatches and the increase in the chicken's mass. My hypothesis is that the chickens that hatch first win gain more mass than the later hatching chickens. I wondered if the time of hatch effected the size of a chicken because they seemed to have more energy.

To perform this experiment, one must gather 24 Buff Orpington eggs, that have the same mass and that were laid on the same day. Place the eggs in an incubator and as each egg hatches, record the time and date of hatching. When the feathers dry, remove the chick from the incubator. Measure the mass of each chick and record. Place the chicks into separate compartments with the same amount of food and water. Measure the mass of the chickens every other day until fourteen measurements have been recorded.

The hypothesis stated that the chickens that hatch first will gain more mass than those who hatch later. According to the data, the hypothesis was rejected. There is not a measurable difference in the masses of the chickens taken on the fourth measurement or the final fourteenth measurement. 

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