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How Accurately Do The Egg Producers Measure Their Eggs?

Researched by LAURA W.
1999-2000 


 PURPOSE

The purpose of this experiment was to see how accurately the egg producers measure their eggs.

I became interested in this idea because I enjoy cooking and wondered if egg sizes were true and accurate.

The information gained from this experiment would help cooks, nutritionists, or people concerned about their diet. 



HYPOTHESIS

My hypothesis is that the brown colored eggs will be more accurately measured than the white eggs.

I base my hypothesis on a fact that more people buy white eggs then brown eggs.

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EXPERIMENT DESIGN

The constants in this study were: 
* The same store the eggs were bought at
* Same temperature the eggs were kept at 
* Same grade (AA)
* Same time testing
* Same number of eggs per color

The manipulated variable was the color of the eggshell. 

The responding variable was the mass and circumference of each egg.

To measure the responding variable I used a triple beam balance to measure each egg’s mass in grams and a tape measure to measure the circumference in centimeters. 

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MATERIALS
QUANTITY ITEM DESCRIPTION
1 triple beam balance

12
brown colored eggs
12 white colored eggs
1 newspaper
refrigerator
1 tape measure
pencil 
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PROCEDURES
1.Gather all materials, except eggs 
2.Go to store and compare prices 
3.Buy eggs (2 colors)
4.Bring home triple beam balance
5.Lay newspaper down on table when ready to experiment 
6.Set triple beam balance up 
7.Calabrate triple beam balance
8.Get eggs out
9.Number each egg by writing number in pencil
10.Measure eggs circumference with tape measure at the absolute widest point. 
11.Take tape measure and wrap around egg
12.Record circumference
13.Put bottle cap on balance, weigh, and record
14.Place egg on bottle cap
15.Measure egg’s mass
16.Record mass after subtracting the mass of the bottle cap
17.Repeat steps 12-18 for each egg, except 13
18.When done erase penciled numbers
19.Put materials away
20.Return eggs to refrigerator
21.Eat eggs when ready (cook first) 
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RESULTS

The original purpose of this experiment was to see how accurately the egg producers measure their eggs.
 

The results of the experiment were that the brown colored eggs were measured more accurately than the white eggs.
 

See the graphs that follow.

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CONCLUSION

My hypothesis was that the brown colored eggs would be more accurately measured than the white eggs.

The results indicate that my hypothesis should be accepted because the brown eggs mass and circumference were closer (in number terms) than the white eggs. 

Because of the results of this experiment, I wonder if the mass of eggs is affected by the color of the egg’s shell.

If I were to conduct this project again I would use more eggs in each group and add blue eggs as well.

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RESEARCH REPORT
HOW EGGS ARE SORTED
After the egg has been laid in the laying house, it rolls down to a conveyer belt and washed and dried.  Next it is taken to a candling room and s placed over a large lamp.  After being candled the eggs are taken to a room where the eggs are weighed and sorted according to size and are graded by the scale AA, A, or B.  Then the eggs are taken to a room where the are placed in cardboard boxes and are ready to sell.

MASS
Mass is found when an object is compared to a known weight.  Although weight changes around the world, mass does not change.

CIRCUMFERENCE
Circumference is the distance around, at the widest point, on a circular object.  Circumference is found when the diameter in multiplied by 3.14.  Or taking a tape measure and wrap it around, at the widest point.

TYPES OF CHICKENS
Here is just a brief list of the types of chickens.  There are 44 standard breeds and 225 varieties of large chickens, and 23 breeds and 107 varieties of small chickens called bantams.  There are 4 classes of chickens, American, Asiatic, English, and Mediterranean. 
Class          Breed           Egg Color      Hen weight (in lbs.)
American Buckeye brown  6.5
  Chantecler brown  6.5
  Delaware brown  6.5
  Dominique brown  5
  Holland white  6.5
  Java  brown  7.5
  Jersey    10
      Giant brown
  Lamona white  6.5
  New
   Hampshire brown  6.5 
  Plymouth 
     Rock brown  7.5
  Rhode Is.
      Red brown  6.5
  Rhode Is.
     White brown  6.5
  Wayndotte brown  6.5
Asiatic Brahma brown  9
  Cochin brown   8.5
  Langshan brown  7.5
English  Australorp tinted  6.5
  Cornish brown  8
  Dorking white  6.5
  Orpington brown  8
  Redcap white  6
  Sussex brown  7
Mediterranean
  Ancona white  4.5
  Blue
   Adulusian white  5.5
  Buttercop white  5
  Catalanas white  6
  Leghorn white  4.5
  Minorca white  7
  Spanish white  6.5
THE EGG

The egg’s shell is made up of shell itself, then the outer spongy layer, then inner mamnillary layer.  The shell is very porous, it lets water and gasses pass through.  After that there are the shell membranes.  The membranes are the outer shell membrane, and the inner shell membrane.  The white is layered like these, thin, thick, thin, thick layers of white.  The last layer of thick white, called the chalaza, is twisted around the yolk.  The yolk is contained in a vitenine membrane called the yolk sac.  The yolk is lighter than the white.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF CHICKENS

Chickens and poultry provide plenty of protein in both the meat and eggs.  The top 5 leading egg producing states are; 1.California, 2. Indiana, 3. Pennsylvania, 4. Ohio, and in 5. Georgia.  In California every year 7,444,000,000 eggs are laid and sold in markets.

CLASSES OF CHICKENS

There are 4 classes of chickens, that are raised for there meat and eggs, American, Asiatic, Mediterranean, and English.  Some breeds have several varieties.  Chickens may differ greatly in body type, plumage pattern, head decoration, and other physical features.  American breeds are called dual-purpose breeds because they are suited for both meat and egg production.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Adams, Albert W. "Poultry", Compton’s Interactive Encyclopedia, 1996

"Chicken", World Book Encyclopedia, 1995

Davis, Karen PhD, "The Plight of Poultry", available at http://arns.enirolink.org/upe/s96 primer.html, 1996, The site listed cannot be reached, sorry.

"Egg", World Book Encyclopedia, 1995

"Poultry", Compton’s Interactive Encyclopedia, 1995

University Animal care, "Species Information", available at http://ww.ahsc.arizona.edu/uac/iacuc/poultry/species.shtml The site listed cannot be reached, sorry.

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