Researched by Bree
The purpose of this experiment was to compare the amount of heat expansion in various gases.
I became interested in this idea when taking my balloon out from inside the house during winter and watching it shrink really fast and then popping when it hit the snow.
The information gained from this experiment will determine what temperature you need to keep your balloons at so that it can have more volume. The information will tell others how much of the gas is needed in a balloon so it won't pop or it won't shrink as fast. It will also determine what type of gas is the best in a balloon when heated.
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My hypothesis is that helium at 60* C (140* F) or lower will have more volume than any of the other gases at the same temperature or lower.
I base my hypothesis on the book I read, A Guide to the Elements, which said that helium is the safest and most used gas for lifting and heating balloons.
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The constants in this study were:
* Same type of balloon
* Same method of measurement
* Same amount of space for balloon to expand in
* Same amount of time for the balloon to expand or shrink
* Same type of water temperature
* Same amount of water
* Same size the balloon is with the gas in it
The manipulated variables are the temperature of each gas.
The responding variable was the volume each gas filled balloon had.
To measure the responding variable I will use a graduated cylinder to measure the water that is displaced by the balloons when immersed in a tank.
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|1||"5 gallon" buket (plastic)|
|1||12lb. Test monofilament fishing line|
|1||100 ml graduated cylinder|
|1||2000 ml beaker|
|10||"9 inch" Mylar balloons|
|1||cap (silly putty)|
|1||S-hook (1/2inch, metal)|
|1||tube of silicone|
|1||3/8 inch pipe|
|1||15 cm piece of 3/8 tubing (plastic)|
1. Take 10 Mylar balloons to Oxica Inc and have them fill two balloons with nitrogen labeling them N-1 and N-2, two balloons with carbon dioxide, labeling them C-1 and C-2, two balloons with argon, labeling them A-1 and A-2, two balloons with helium, labeling them H-1 and H-2 and two balloons with oxygen labeling them O-1 and O-2.
2. Thread the fishing line through all three of the eyebolts that have been attached to the inside of the bucket.
3. Insert a pipe in to one side of the bucket 3 inches from the top.
4. Fill the bucket full of 1* C water to just below the opening of the pipe.
5. Attach plastic tubing to the outside opening of the pipe.
6. Hook the S hook to a balloon that is filled with argon 1.
7. Set a timer for 5 minutes so that the gas will get to the full temperature.
8. Immediately, submerge the balloon submerged underwater with the tube plugged with a cap.
9. After five minutes unplug the cap and let the water poor out into the beaker while still holding the balloon under water.
10. Measure the water with a graduated cylinder by taking the 2000-Ml beaker and very slowly pour the water into the 100ml-graduated cylinder at a time and then record the data.
11. One at a time, repeat steps 4-9 using the remaining nine balloons.
12. Repeat experiment three times using the following temperatures 20° C, 40°C, and 60°C.
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The original purpose of this experiment was to compare the amount of heat expansion in various different gases.
The results of the experiment were that as the temperature of any gas was increased the volume would also increase.
The gas volume change per degree of temperature change from1°C to 58° C. for Oxygen was 5.5 ml. Nitrogen had a 3.4 ml change per degree. Argon had a 3.2 ml change per degree. Helium had a 2.9 ml. change per degree. Carbon dioxide had a 2.7 ml change per degree.
Oxygen had an overall percentage volume change of 36.5%. Nitrogen changed 21.8 %. Argon had a 20.5% change. Helium had a 16.4% change. Carbon dioxide changed 15.3%.
My hypothesis was that helium at 60 degrees C would have the most volume than any of the other gases at any other temperature or lower.
The results indicate that this hypothesis should be rejected.
Because of the results of this experiment, I wonder if I added something to the water like salt at 60 degrees C. Would it make a difference?
If I were to conduct this project again I would use a 4 inch Mylar balloon instead of a 9 inch Mylar balloon because the balloon would have been submerged more under water and it wouldn’t be as hard to get the balloon to a certain temperature. I would have also gotten more balloons for each of my trials.
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Heat is a very important energy to the earth. We depend on heat to keep us warm, to cook our food, and for machinery that we use. We wouldn’t be here if there wasn’t any heat. Gas is also a very important type of energy. All different types of gases are in the air we breathe such as nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, helium, and many more.
Heat and energy can not be seen but the work they do is in our ovens and other appliances. Heat and energy make gases expand and provide power to work. The temperature of an object determines if it is going to loose energy or loose some when it comes in contact with another object. The atoms and molecules will stop until there is heat to be given to them to move again.
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Benford, Gregory. "Energy," The WorldBook Encyclopedia. 1995. Vol. 6. Pp. 274
Heimler, Charles H. and Price, Jack Physical Science. Ohio: Merrill, 1981. Pg. 74, 433
Hsu, David D. "Elements Table." [Online] Available http://www.chemicool.com/, 1996
Laudon, Robert C. "Gas," The World Book Encyclopedia. 1995. Vol.8. Pp.48-58
Periodic Table, [Online] Available http://www.ask.com/1994.
Stwertka, Albert. A Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford, 1996. Pg. 16-26