Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
The M1 Carbine cartridge is a rifle cartridge, not a pistol round. It is matched and designed to be fired from the M1's 18 inch (458 mm) barrel. Pistol rounds are designed to be fired typically, from 4-8 inch barrels of pistols or submachine guns. The rounded head and lack of tapering do not mean it is a pistol round. Rifle rounds historically had round tops and even in WWII the Italians still used a round top bullet. For example, one of the most powerful rifle rounds ever made, the .60 Action Express, designed for killing large wild animals, does not have tapering and has a rounded head. The automatic version of the M1, the M2 meets all the qualifications for being a assault rifle, and its effective range differs from weapons like the AK-47, less than the AK differs from most full power rifles.
Many rifle cartridges can be used in pistols, which is possible because their shorter barrels waste much of the propellents burn time and have much reduced performance. Even .50 BMG used in the M2 heavy machine guns, has had pistols made for it; this (M1) rifle round has also been used as a revolver cartridge even though it is not designed for it.
Like other small rifle rounds, the M1's hitting power with the bullet was often less than larger pistol rounds. This is also true of modern rounds like 5.56mm NATO. Fired from the M1, the round has much farther effective range than pistol rounds, but less than that of full power rifles, with an official effective range of up to 300 yards (275 meters).
The cartridge and the M1 Carbine, not to be confused with the M1 Thompson submachine gun or M1 Garand rifle, were developed to give rear area units more firepower than the standard issue M1911A1 .45 ACP caliber handgun. Tankers, drivers, artillery crews, mortar crews, and other rearline personnel were issued the M1 Carbine in lieu of the larger, heavier M1 Garand but the weapon ended up being very popular among frontline troops as well. Many infantymen, particularly Marines fighting in the Pacific jungles, preferred the weapon over the M1 Garand because of the weapon's small size and weight. Also, at the ranges they were fighting at, the power of the M1 Garand was not needed and the length and weight made a full-sized rifle somewhat cumbersome.
- Case: 1.29 in
- Overall: 1.65 in
- Rim: .360 in
- Base: .354 in
- Neck: .331 in
- Bullet (nominal): .3065 in
- Bullet weight: 110 gr
- Muzzle velocity: 1975 ft/s
- .30 M1 Carbine
- 7.62 x 33 mm
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