Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Abdul Hamid I
Abd-ul-Hamid I (March 20, 1725 – April 7, 1789), also known as Abdulhamid, Abdul Hamid or Abdul-Hamid, was the 27th sultan of the Ottoman Empire. He was a son of sultan Ahmed III and succeeded his brother Mustafa III on January 21, 1774.
His mother Rabia Semi Sultana took care of his education. He studied history. He learnt calligraphy.
Abdul Hamid spent the first forty-three years of his life imprisoned by his older brother, Mustafa. The social isolation he experienced, while he was imprisoned, made it extremely easy for his advisors to manipulate him.
Due to this long confinement in the palace aloof from state affairs left Abd-ul-Hamid pious, God-fearing and pacifist in disposition. At his accession the financial straits of the treasury were such that the usual donative could not be given to the janissaries. War was, however, forced on him, and less than a year after his accession the complete defeat of the Turks at Battle of Kozluja led to the treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji on July 21 1774.
In spite of his failures, Sultan Abdul Hamid I was regarded as the most gracious sultan of the Ottomans. He administrated the fire brigade during the fire in 1782, in Istanbul and he won the admiration of his people. He was so religious and gracious that, he was called as "Veli" (saint). He traced a reform policy. He followed the governmental administrations closely. He worked with statesmen. When he came to throne, the army asked for gratuity, and the Sultan claimed that; "there is no longer, gratuities in our treasury, all of our soldier sons should learn". He also began the restoration of the military system. He established modern schools. He tried to renovate the yeniceri corps and the naval forces. He established a new artillery troop. He made a census in the yeniceri corps.
Slight successes against rebellious outbreaks in Syria and the Morea could not compensate for the loss of the Crimea, which Russia soon showed that she meant to absorb entirely. In 1787 war was again declared against Russia, joined in the following year by Austria and the Swedes entered on the conflict on the Ottoman's side. Nevertheless Joseph II was entirely won over to Catherine the Great and accompanied in her triumphal progress in the Crimea. The empire held her own against the Austrians, but in 1788 Ochakov fell to the Russians.
The sultan died four months later at the age of sixty-four. When Abdul Hamid died in 1789, the situation looked bleak for the Ottomans. He was buried in Bahcekapi, to the tomb, he had built for himself.
His Wifes : Ayse Sine-perver Mother Sultana, Naksh-i Dil Mother Sultana, Hatice Ruh-shah, Huma Shah, Ayse, Binnaz, Dilpezir, Mehtabe, Misl-i Na-yab, Mu'teber, Nevres, Mihriban
His Sons : Mustafa IV, Mahmud II, Murad, Nusret, Mehmed, Ahmed, Suleyman
His Daughters : Esma, Emine, Rabia, Saliha, Alimsah, Durusehvar, Fatma, Meliksah, Hibetullah Zekiye
The contents of this article is licensed from www.wikipedia.org under the GNU Free Documentation License. Click here to see the transparent copy and copyright details