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Adrenocortical carcinoma is a carcinoma of the cortex (outer layer) of the adrenal gland. While most tumors of the adrenal cortex are benign (adenomas) and only occasionally cause Cushing's syndrome, the malignant form makes up about 3% of all cortical tumors and requires surgery and sometimes chemotherapy. Excess cortisol production may require suppression with ketoconazole or metyrapone. Production of aldosterone or androgens by carcinomas is extremely rare.
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