Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn (Алекса́ндр Иса́евич Солжени́цын) (born December 11, 1918) is a Russian novelist, dramatist and historian. He was responsible for thrusting awareness of the Soviet forced labor system on the non-Soviet world.
Born in Kislovodsk, Russia, Solzhenitsyn fought in the Red Army during World War II. He became a captain before he was arrested in 1945 for ASA or Anti-Soviet agitation, criticizing Joseph Stalin in letters to his brother-in-law. He was imprisoned for eight years, from 1945 to 1952, under the draconian Article 58 law. He spent time in a sharashka, a white-collar prison labor compound. He wrote about this in The First Circle.
The novel about Ivan Denisovich brought the Soviet system of forced labor to the attention of the West, but it was his monumental history of the massive Soviet concentration camps for both criminal and political prisoners that made it impossible for either the West or the Soviet Union to ignore the realities of the Communist regime. No longer was this an issue for anti-communists only - all Western democracies had to confront it.
On February 13, 1974, Solzhenitsyn was deported from the Soviet Union to West Germany and stripped of his Soviet citizenship. The KGB had found the manuscript for the first part of "The Gulag Archipelago". Less than a week later, the Soviets carried out reprisals against Yevgeny Yevtushenko for his support of Solzhenitsyn.
Despite an enthusiastic welcome on his first arrival in America, followed by respect for his privacy, he had never been comfortable outside his homeland. However radical he might have been in the USSR, outside that context he appeared to some to be a reactionary, particularly in his Russian nationalism and his religious orthodoxy. At any rate, he was hardly the "Cold War prize" some had thought him.
He has been criticized by some who consider him a radical; according to their claims he frequently makes connections between the activities of Jews, Georgians and Latvians and the causes of the mishaps that befell Russia in the 20th century.
In May 1997, Solzhenitsyn was elected full member (academician) of the Russian Academy of Science. In 1997 he established his own prize in literature ($25,000).
Solzhenitsyn's two-volume book "200 years together" (partially based on his 1968 manuscript "Jews in USSR and in the future Russia", in which he uses expressions such as "Lenin-Jewish revolution",,) is considered by many to be antisemitic. Several books and series of articles have been written to refute particular claims made by Solzhenitsyn in his work (e.g. ,).
- One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich (1962)
- The First Circle (1968)
- The Cancer Ward (1968)
- August 1914 (1971). The beginning of a history of the birth of the USSR in an historical novel. The novel centers on the disastrous loss in the Battle of Tannenberg (1914) in August, 1914. Other works, similarly titled, follow the story.
- The Gulag Archipelago (three volumes) (1973-78), not a memoir, but a history of the entire process of developing and administering a police state in the Soviet Union.
- The Oak and the Calf (1975)
- Lenin in Zurich (1976)
- The Mortal Danger: Misconceptions about Soviet Russia and the Threat to America (1980)
- November 1916 (1983)
- Three Plays (1986)
- Rebuilding Russia (1990)
- March 1917
- April 1917
- The Russian Question (1995)
- Invisible Allies (1997)
- Two Hundred Years Together on Russian-Jewish relations since 1772, aroused ambiguous public response. (, , )
- Edited and with an introduction by Michael Scammell, translated under the supervision of Catherine A. Fitzpatrick, The Solzhenitsyn Files: Secret Soviet Documents Reveal One Man's Fight Against the Monolith, edition q, 1995, hardcover, ISBN 1-883695-06-6
- Mars Hill Audio has a tape about him titled "One Word of Truth".
- The Nobel Prize Internet Archive's page on Solzhenitsyn
- A World Split Apart: Solzhenitsyn's 1978 Commencement Address to the graduating class at Harvard University
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