Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Karl Alexander Müller
Karl Alexander Müller (born April 20, 1927) is a Swiss physicist who, along with J. Georg Bednorz, was awarded the 1987 Nobel Prize for Physics for their joint discovery of superconductivity in certain substances at higher temperatures than had previously been thought attainable.
Müller received his doctorate from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in 1958, and beginning in 1963 he performed research in solid-state physics at the IBM Zurich Research Laboratory , heading the physics department there for several years and becoming an IBM fellow in 1982.
A specialist in the ceramic compounds known as oxides, Müller in the early 1980s began searching for substances that would become superconductive (i.e., conduct electricity with no resistance) at higher temperatures than had theretofore been obtained. The highest transition temperature (the temperature below which a material loses all electrical resistance) attainable at that time was about 23 K (-250 °C [-418 F]). In 1983 Müller recruited Bednorz to help him systematically test various oxides, materials that a few recent studies had indicated might be suitable for superconductivity. In 1986 the two men succeeded in achieving superconductivity in a recently developed barium-lanthanum-copper oxide at a temperature of 35 K (-238 °C [-396 F]), 12 K higher than had previously been achieved. Their discovery immediately prompted a wave of renewed superconductivity experiments by other scientists worldwide, this time using oxides, and within a year transition temperatures approaching 100 K (-173 °C [-280 F]) had been achieved.
The intense research generated by Müller's and Bednorz's discovery raised the prospect that superconductivity could be achieved at temperatures high enough for the generation and transmission of electric power, a feat that would have important economic implications.
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