Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
The city of Amersfoort
Hunter-gatherers set up their camps in the Amersfoort region in the Mesolithic period. Traces of these camps have been found to the north of Amersfoort, mainly consisting of vague features, which represent the hearths of the hunter-camps. Sometimes microlithic flint objects have been found.
Settlements in the Amersfoort area from around 1000 BC have been found, but the name Amersfoort (named after a ford in the Amer river, now the Eem ) did not appear until the 11th century. It was granted city rights in 1259 by the bishop of Utrecht Hendrik van Vianden . The city developed around what is now known as the central square, the "Hof". This was the place where the Bishop of Utrecht settled a court, in order to control the "Gelderse vallei". Around the episcopal court the city grew, resulting in the grant of city rights. A first defensive wall, made out of brick, was finished around 1300. Soon after, the need for enlargement of the city appeared and around 1380 the start of a new wall took place, which was finished around 1450. The famous Koppelpoort is part of this wall. The first wall was demolished and at its place houses arose. The Muurhuizen (wallhouses) street is at the exact location of the first wall; the front wall of the houses is founded on top of the citywall foundations.
The Onze-Lieve-Vrouwentoren (Our Lady's tower, ) is one of the highest medieval church towers of the country: 98 m. The construction of the tower and the church was started in 1444. The church was demolished by an explosion in 1787, but the tower survived. It is now the reference point of the RD coordinate system, the coordinate grid used by the Dutch topographical service: the RD coordinates are (155.000, 463.000).
The inner city of Amersfoort has been preserved very well since the Middle Ages. Apart from the Onze-Lieve-Vrouwetoren, the main attractions are the Sint-Joris church, the Koppelpoort (a combined land and water gate in the city walls), and the Muurhuizen (Wall-houses), which were built against the oldest city wall.
In the Middle Ages, Amersfoort was an important centre of textile industries, and there were a large number of breweries in the city. In the 18th century the city flourished because of the cultivation of tobacco.
The nickname for Amersfoort, Keistad (stone-city), originates in the Amersfoortse Kei, a boulder that was dragged into the city in 1661 by 400 people because of a bet. This story embarrassed the inhabitants, and they buried the boulder in the city, but after it was found again in 1903 it was placed on a prominent spot as a monument.
Hoogland is a village located north of the city of Amersfoort. Since 1974, Hoogland has been a part of the municipality of Amersfoort.Hoogland is famous for its unique Carnval and anual village festival.
Hooglanderveen is a village near Amersfoort. It is notable for the presence of a large catholic church.
Formerly, the village of Hooglanderveen was located outside of the city limits of Amersfoort, but the new residential areas of Nieuwland and Vathorst now mean that Hooglanderveen is surrounded by the city.
Second World War
In the Second World War there was a concentration camp near the city of Amersfoort. Many good people died there. After the war the leader of this camp, Joseph Kotälla, was sentenced to death.
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- Detailed Falkplan map
- Maps of quarters - detailed (right-click), but with only few street names
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