Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
|Appearance||white crystalline powder|
|Melting point||338°C (640F) sublimes|
|Boiling point||520°C (968F)|
|Solubility||29.7g/100g water @ 0°C|
|S0gas, 1 bar||J/mol·K|
|S0liquid, 1 bar||J/mol·K|
|Ingestion||Induce vomiting. If victim is conscious and alert, give 2-4 cupfuls of milk or water.Seek medical help|
|Inhalation||Remove from exposure to fresh air. Seek medical help|
|Skin||Wash off with plenty of soap and water|
|Eyes||Flush eyes with plenty of clean water. Seek medical help.|
|More info||Hazardous Chemical Database|
Ammonium chloride or Sal Ammoniac (chemically ammonium chloride (NH4Cl); also zalmiak, sal armagnac, sal armoniac, and salt armoniack) is, in its pure form, a clear white water-soluble crystalline salt with a biting taste.
In nature, the substance occurs in volcanic regions, forming on volcanic rocks near fume-releasing vents. The crystals sublimate directly from the gaseous state, and tend to be short-lived, as they dissolve easily in water.
It is easy to produce artificially and is often created as a byproduct of other industries.
Historically it was considered one of the four alchemical "spirits". The way that it dissociates into two corrosive materials (ammonia and hydrochloric acid) which attack metals convinced eager alchemists that it might hold the key to converting one metal to another.
Other uses include a feed supplement for cattle, in hair shampoo, in textile printing, in the glue that bonds plywood, as an ingredient in nutritive media for yeast, in cleaning products, and as cough medicine. Its expectorant action is caused by irritative action on the bronchial mucosa. This causes the production of excess respiratory tract fluid which presumably is easier to cough up.
Sal Ammoniac was named after it was observed in the Temple of Zeus-Ammon in Egypt; its name means "salt of Ammon". It was the white crystalline substance that remained on the ceiling and walls after camel dung was burned. The modern name "ammonium" comes from Sal Ammoniac. There are a few stories of Alexander the Great finding such crystals in the coal seams of Tajikistan. The substance was known as nao sha in China, nao sadar in India, and nushadir in Persia and Arabic countries.
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