Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
The Arrow Interceptor ( טיל חץ, Hebrew: "Hetz") is a theater missile defense (TMD) system; it is the first missile that was specifically designed and built to intercept and destroy ballistic missiles on a national level. It is the only anti-ballistic missile system able to intercept its targets so high in the stratosphere.
The Arrow ABM system was designed and constructed in Israel with financial support by the United States in a multi-billion dollar development program (said to be $2,000,000,000 USD to date). The Israeli Ministry of Defence runs the Arrow development project under the name "Min'elet Homa", which binds together Israel's different security industries (such as IMI, Tadiran , IAI etc). The system was designed and constructed after the massive failure of the anti-aircraft Patriot missile system to properly intercept and destroy the Scud missiles fired by Iraq during the first Gulf War in 1991.
The ABM system is meant to intercept medium- and short-range ballistic missiles and was designed with an eye towards the advanced missile programs of Iraq and Iran. The system is built around the Arrow missiles, the "Yellow Citron" control system and the "Green Pine" radar target tracking system. In actual use, the system would be aided by American satellites that can detect and report the flare as missiles are launched. The first operational system was deployed in central Israel, at the Palmachim Airbase on the Mediterranean coast, on March 14, 2000. The latest missile is known as the Arrow II and is still being evaluated for improvement.
Unlike the automated Patriot system, the Arrow system is controlled by an officer who can evaluate the trajectory and decide if one of the advanced Arrow missiles should be launched. There are 6 missile tubes in each launcher and each can be launched to a separate target. Confirmation of this and other abilities was demonstrated in a recent test—the 10th for the Arrow interceptor and the 5th for the complete system—as 4 of 6 missiles were launched at virtual targets during joint U.S.-Israeli exercises. The system is designed to handle up to 14 simultaneous intercepts.
The Arrow 2 interceptor itself has a speed 2.5 km/s; as opposed to purely kinetic weapons it has its own explosive warhead allowing it to miss by 40–50 meters and still kill.
On July 29, 2004 Israel and the USA carried out joint experiment in the USA, in which the Arrow was launched against a real Scud missile. The experiment was a success, as the Arrow destroyed the Scud with a direct hit.
Following the successful trial the Israeli Minister of Defense, Shaul Mofaz said,
- "this is a central plank of Israel's defense ability. The success of the test is further proof of the technological superiority of the Israeli Defense Industries". 
The system has a high success rate and Israel plans to deploy the system at several locations to provide complete protection for the state. Procedures are reportedly in place to launch a second Arrow Interceptor should the first miss and to then launch one of the latest Patriot missiles should both fail.
Israel is in negotiations with India to sell the system to them, but the US arms control regime has blocked the sale of the actual missiles, though the Green Pine system has already apparently been sold to India and installed. Discussions have also take place between Israel and Turkey, with which Israel has a strategic defense partnership, but the outcome is unknown. There has also been talk of using the Arrow as part of a multi-tier ABM system by the US.
- Israel's Preparation for War
- Israeli Arrow ABM System is Operational as War Clouds Darken
- Israeli Cooperative Project (Arrow) (U)
- Countering the Ghauris, Ghaznavis and Abdalis: Where's the TMD Debate?
- Missile links at commonwealthclub.org
- Preempting wheat smut attacks
- ISRAEL'S ARROW 2 ABM INTERCEPTS SCUD IN TEST
- Israel, India, and Turkey: Triple Entente?
- U.S.-Israel Exercise Links Arrow and Patriot into Multi-Tier Missile Defense System
- We Need Missile Defense Now
- Ensuring Shalom
- India: Reports Conflict Over U.S. Opposition to Arrow Sale
- The 'Arrow' System Test- A Strategic Accomplishment (Israeli Defence Forces spokesperson)
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