Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Austrian cuisine, which is often incorrectly equated with Viennese cuisine, is derived from the cuisine of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In addition to native regional traditions it has been influenced above all by Hungarian, Czech, Jewish, and Italian cuisines, from which both dishes and methods of food preparation have often been borrowed. Goulash is one example of this. Austrian cuisine is known primarily in the rest of the world for its pastries and sweets. In recent times a new regional cuisine has also developed which is centred on regional produce and employs modern and easy methods of preparation.
In Austria coffee is served in a variety of styles, particularly in the coffeehouses of Vienna. An Austrian Mokka or kleiner Schwarzer is similar to espresso, but is extracted more slowly. From the Mokka are prepared other styles: -
- großer Schwarzer - a double Mokka
- kleiner Brauner or großer Brauner - single or double Mokka plus milk
- Verlängerter - "lengthened" (i.e. diluted) Mokka plus milk
- Melange - half Mokka, half heated milk, often topped with foamed milk
- Franziskaner - Melange topped with whipped cream not foamed milk
- Kapuziner - kleiner Schwarzer plus a few drops of whipped cream
- Einspänner - großer Schwarzer topped with whipped cream
Beer is generally sold in the following sizes: 0.2 litre (a Pfiff), 0.3 litre (a Seidel or kleines Bier) and 0.5 litre (a Krügerl, Halbe or großes Bier). At festivals one litre Maß and two litre Doppler in the Bavarian style are also dispensed. The most popular types of beer are pale lager (known as Märzen in Austria), naturally cloudy Zwicklbier, and wheat beer. At holidays like Christmas and Easter bock beer is also available.
Wine is principally cultivated in the east of Austria. The most important wine-producing areas are in Vienna, Lower Austria, Burgenland and Styria. Young wine (i.e. wine produced from grapes of the most recent harvest) is called Heuriger and gives its name to inns in Vienna and its surroundings which serve Heuriger wine and food. In Styria and Burgenland the heuriger inns are known as Buschenschanken. The Grüner Veltliner grape provides some of Austria's most notable white wines.
Other alcoholic drinks
At the close of a meal, schnapps or fruit brandy is drunk, which in Austria is made from a variety of fruits (for example apricots), as well as rowanberries, gentian roots, or various herbs. The produce of small private schnapps distilleries, of which there are around 20,000 in Austria, is known as Selberbrennter or Hausbrand.
For snacking inbetween meals there are open sandwiches, different kinds of sausage with mustard and bread, as well as sliced sausage and Leberkäse rolls.
There are also other common delicacies, which may not be cordon bleu, but which are typical of Austrian food, for example the Bosna (a spiced bratwurst in a hot dog roll) which is an integral part of the menu at Austria's typical fast-food joint, the sausage stand.
Typically Viennese dishes include:
- Apfelstrudel (a kind of apple dessert)
- Topfenstrudel (a cream cheese strudel)
- Palatschinke (a Viennese crêpe, from the Hungarian palacsinta)
- Wiener schnitzel
- Sachertorte (a chocolate cake)
- Tafelspitz (boiled oxtail , often served with apple and horseradish sauce)
- Goulash (a hotpot similar to Hungarian pörkölt - gulyás is a soup in hungary)
- Selchfleisch (smoked meat) with sauerkraut und dumplings.
- Rindsuppe (beef soup)
- Beuschel (a ragout containing calf lungs and heart)
- Liptauer cheese
The Danish pastry is said to originate from Vienna and in Denmark is called wienerbrød (Viennese bread).
In Lower Austria, local delicacies such as Waldviertel poppies, Mühlviertel linseed oil (used for example in Leinerdäpfel - linseed potatoes), Marchfeld asparagus and Wachau apricots are cultivated. Their influence can be felt in the local cuisine, for example in poppy noodles. Game dishes are very common. Lower Austria is striking for the differences within its regional cuisine due its size and the variety of its landscape.
Burgenland's cuisine has been influenced by Hungarian cuisine owing to its former position within the Hungarian part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Dishes consist mainly of fish, chicken or goose, for example goose livers. Polenta is a popular side-dish. On St Martin's Day (November, 11 ) a Martinigans (St Martin's goose) is often prepared, whilst carp is a typical Christmas dish.
In Styrian Buschenschanken (inns), Verhackertes (a spread made from finely chopped bacon) is served. Schilcher, a very dry rosé , is the regional style of wine in West Styria. A typically Styrian delicacy is pumpkin seed oil, which lends itself particularly to salads on account of its nutty taste. Many varieties of pumpkin dish are also very popular. Heidensterz, a pancake made from buckwheat flour, is a local dish enjoyed in cold weather.
Carinthia's many lakes mean that fish is a popular main course. Grain, dairy produce and meat are important ingredients in Carinthian cuisine. Carinthian Kasnudeln (noodle dough pockets filled with quark and mint) and smaller Schlickkrapfen (mainly with a meat filling) are well-known local delicacies. Klachlsuppe (pig's trotter soup) and Reindling (a type of fruit loaf) are also produced locally.
Various types of dumpling are an important part of Upper Austrian cuisine, as they are in neighbouring Bavaria and Bohemia. The Linzer Torte, a cake which includes ground hazelnuts and marmelade, is a popular dessert from the region.
Kasnockerln (cheese dumplings) are a popular meal, as are freshwater fish, particularly trout, served in various ways. Salzburger Nockerln (a meringue-like dish) is a well-known local dessert.
Tyrolean bacon and all sorts of dumplings play an important roll in the cuisine of the Tyrol. Dumplings are prepared with bacon, spinach or Tyrolean Graukäse (a sour milk cheese) and eaten on their own, in a soup, or as a side-dish. Graukäse is also dressed with oil and vinegar and served garnished with onion rings. Other local delicacies are Tiroler Gröstl (pan-fried meat, potatoes and onions) and Schlutzkrapfen (noodle dough pockets filled with meat or potatoes). Doughnuts and Kiachle (fritters) fried in dripping are also popular. Melchermuas (a type of pancake) is still prepared in an iron pan in alpine lodges.
The cuisine of Vorarlberg has been influenced by the alemannic cuisine of neighbouring Switzerland and Swabia. Cheese and cheese products play a major roll in the cuisine, with Käsknöpfle and Kässpätzle (egg noodles prepared with cheese) being popular dishes. Other delicacies include Krutspätzle (sauerkraut noodles), Käsdönnala (similar to a quiche), Schupfnudla (made from a dough mixing potato and flour), Flädlesuppe (pancake soup), Öpfelküachle (apple cake) and Funkaküachle (cake traditionally eaten on the first Sunday of Lent).
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