Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Babylonia was an ancient state in Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. Its capital was Babylon. The earliest mention of Babylon can be found in a tablet of the reign of Sargon of Akkad, dating back to the 23rd century BC.
The Babylonians began the empire of babylonia in southern Mesopotamia under their sixth ruler, Hammurabi (1780–1750 BC). He was a highly efficient ruler, famous for the code of laws that he laid down, and he gave the region stability after turbulent times. It was one of ancient Mesopotamia's major empires.
Babylon became the central power of Mesopotamia. The armies of Babylonia were well-disciplined, and they conquered the city-states of Isin, Elam, and Uruk, and the strong Kingdom of Mari. But Mesopotamia had no clear boundaries, making it vulnerable to attack. Trade and culture thrived for 150 years, but then the Hittites sacked Babylon in 1595 BC. Its cities continued for 100 years under different foreign rulers. Then, for 500 years, Babylon was overshadowed by Assyria before its rise to greatness.
Mathematics and science
The mathematicians of Babylonia devised a system of counting based on the number 60, from which we get the number of seconds in a minute and of minutes in an hour and the number of degrees (60×6) in a circle. Babylonian scholars developed early sciences and astrology from the knowledge they gained from the Sumerians.
- Ancient Orient
- Babylonia and Assyria
- Assyria and Babylonia contrasted
- History of Babylonia and Assyria
- Kings of Babylon
- Geography of Babylonia and Assyria
- Assyro-Babylonian culture
- Chaldean mythology
- Babylonian law
- Babylonian literature and science
- Art and architecture of Babylonia and Assyria
- Social life in Babylonia and Assyria
- Proper names of Babylonia and Assyria
- The History of the Ancient Near East
- Babylonian Mathematics
- Babylonian Numerals
- Babylonian Astronomy/Astrology
- Bibliography of Babylonian Astronomy/Astrology
- The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria by Theophilus G. Pinches (Many Divine Names Are Now Read Differently, But This Detailed 1906 Work Is a Classic)
- LEGENDS OF BABYLON AND EGYPT IN RELATION TO HEBREW TRADITION, by Leonard W. King, 1918
- THE BABYLONIAN LEGENDS OF THE CREATION and the Fight between Bel and the Dragon, as told by Assyrian Tablets from Nineveh, 1921
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