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Battle of White Mountain
The Battle of White Mountain, November 8, 1620 (Bílá hora is the name of White Mountain in Czech) was an early battle in the Thirty Years' War in which an army of 15,000 Bohemians and mercenaries under Christian of Anhalt were routed by 25,000 men of the combined armies of Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor under Karel Bonaventura Buquoy and of the Catholic League under Johan Tzerclaes, Count of Tilly at Czech Bílá Hora, near Prague. The battle marked the end of the Bohemian period of the Thirty Years' War.
Initially the revolt of the protestants in Bohemia went well, and they broke out of their isolated political position by electing Frederick V, Elector Palatine as their king. But things changed when Maximilian I, Duke of Bavaria regrouped the forces of the Catholic League. He sent Tilly straight to Prague.
The Czech commander, Christian Anhalt, assembled his troops, and deployed them on the slopes of a hill (Bílá Hora in Czech, Weissenberg in German, both meaning White Mountain) blocking the road to Prague. His troops occupied a solid position, with his right flank covered by a hunting castle, his left covered by a brook, and a small brook with some moors in front of them.
Tilly observed the enemy position and sent his well-trained men over a small bridge crossing the brook. In just two hours of heavy fighting, they smashed through the center of the enemy line. This decided the battle.
With the Czech army destroyed, Tilly entered Prague. Freedom of religion came to an end, 27 leaders of the insurrection were executed, and Protestants fled the country. King Frederick fled the country too (hence his nickname the winter king). The battle ended the independence of Bohemia for 300 years.
Spanish troops, seeking to encircle their rebellious Dutch provinces, seized the Palatinate. With Protestantism threatening to be overrun in Germany, Denmark entered the struggle.
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