Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
The British Museum is one of the world's largest and most important museums of ancient history. It was established in 1753 and was based largely on the collections of the physician and scientist Sir Hans Sloane. Its first home was Montagu House which was purchased by the British government for £20,000, which was later replaced with new buildings on the same site. The museum opened to the public on January 15, 1759.
The museum is home to six million objects covering the story of human culture from its beginning to the present. Many of the artifacts are stored underneath the museum due to lack of space. The present chairman is Sir John Boyd and its director is Neil MacGregor.
The building and admission fee
The Queen Elizabeth II Great Court is a covered square at the centre of the British Museum designed by the architects Foster and Partners. The Great Court opened in December 2000 and is the largest covered square in Europe. The roof is a glass and steel construction with 1,656 pairs of uniquely shaped glass panes. At the centre of the Great Court is the Reading Room vacated by the British Library. The Reading Room is open to any member of the public who wishes to read there.
The British Museum has charged an admission fee only during a period of a few months in 1972; however, some temporary special exhibitions, within but separate from the main museum, do charge. During 2002 the museum suffered serious financial difficulties and was even closed for a day when its staff protested about proposed redundancies. A few weeks later the theft of a small Greek statue was blamed on lack of security staff.
Highlights of the collections
The British Museum is principally a museum of antiquities. This distinguishes it from the likes of The Louvre, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, and the Hermitage Museum in St Petersburg which are "universal" museums of art and culture. In London the main collections of Western fine art and global applied art are housed in the independent National Gallery and Victoria and Albert Museums respectively. However, many exhibits of the British Museum's exhibits are of great artistic merit as well as historical importance. Highlights of the collections include:
- The Elgin Marbles, carvings from the Athenian Parthenon
- The Portland Vase
- The Rosetta Stone
- The Stein collection from Central Asia
- The Clock Room
- Works by Albrecht Dürer: 1 volume of sketches and 4 volumes of manuscripts
- Egyptian Mummies
- The Benin Bronzes
- Artifacts from the Sutton Hoo burial
- The echo in the reading room, which Gerard Hoffnung recommended
Admission to the British Museum is free, except for special exhibitions within the main museum.
At present, the ethnography section of the museum is closed, as it is in transit from another site to the main Museum.
Museum opening hours
- Saturday–Wednesday: 10:00–17:30
- Thursday & Friday: 10:00–20:30
Great Court opening hours
- Monday: 09:00–18:00
- Tuesday & Wednesday: 09:00–21:00
- Thursday–Saturday: 09:00–23:00
- Sunday: 09:00–21:00
- Great Russell Street
- London WC1B 3DG
Nearest London Underground stations:
- Tottenham Court Road (Central, Northern lines)
- Holborn (Central, Piccadilly lines)
- Russell Square (Piccadilly line)
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