Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
British coin Two Pounds (pre-decimal)
Two Pound coins after 1983 are discussed in a separate article.
A gold Two Pounds coin was an occasional feature of the British currency from 1823 until the early 1990s. With the exception of proof coins issued in 1825, 1826, and 1831, the design of the reverse always featured the George and Dragon of Benedetto Pistrucci, with the year in the exergue under the design.
The coin was normally issued in cased "proof" condition, although the issues of 1823, 1887, 1893, and 1902 did circulate. The normal weight of the denomination was 16 grams, with a usual diameter of 28 millimetres.
The first appearance of the denomination was in the reign of George IV, when it was produced in 1826 and 1829. The obverse shows the left-facing bust of the king with the legend GEORGIUS IIII D G BRITANNIAR REX F D, with the Pistrucci reverse and DECUS ET TUTAMEN ANNO REGNI IV on the edge.
The 1826 coin features a smaller head of the king, with the legend GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA 1826 while the reverse shows a crowned shield within a mantle cape with the legend BRITANNIARUM REX FID DEF. The 1826 coin has the edge inscription DECUS ET TUTAMEN ANNO REGNI SEPTIMO.
In 1831 a proof coin of this denomination was produced for the start of the reign of king William IV. The obverse shows a right facing head of the king with the legend GULIELMUS IIII D G BRITANNIAR REX F D, while the reverse shows a crowned shield with the legend ANNO 1831. There is no edge inscription.
The next appearance of the denomination was not until 1887 when the golden jubilee of Queen Victoria was being celebrated, when the Jubilee head was used with the obverse inscription VICTORIA D G BRIT REG F D, while the reverse shows Pistrucci's design of St George slaying the dragon with the only legend being the date in the exergue. The edge of this coin is milled, and it weighs 16 grams. This coin was also (rarely) produced in the mint at Sydney, Australia, which is identified by the letter "S" above the centre of the date.
The Pistrucci reverse was used again in 1893, when the obverse used the "Old Head" of the queen, with the legend VICTORIA DEI GRA BRITT REGINA FID DEF IND IMP, and the edge is again milled.
In the reigns of Kings Edward VII, George V, (Edward VIII), and George VI, two pound coins were only issued in proof sets in the first year of their reign (only prepared for approval in the case of Edward VIII, which is why his coin is valued at around £175,000!), except for Edward VII in 1902 when the did circulate. All these reigns used the Pistrucci George and Dragon obverse with milled edges. The 1902 Edward VII coin was also minted at Sydney, being identified by an "S" above the centre of the date.
The reign of Queen Elizabeth II saw a departure from the normal practice in issuing gold coinage. A small number of gold £2 pieces were struck in 1953 in order to provide continuity of the series, but the striking was not released to the public, with the result that they are now valued at around £75,000. No further £2 gold pieces were struck until 1980, 9 years after decimalisation, since when they were issued somewhat haphazardly in most years. Coins from 1980 to 1984 use the Arnold Machin effigy of the Queen, while the 1985-1996 coins use the Raphael Maklouf effigy and most later coins use the Ian Rank-Broadley effigy. Until 1993, all these years use the Pistrucci reverse except for 1986 which used a gold version of the circulating Two Pound coin, and 1989 when a completely new design was used to commemorate the 500th anniversary of the first issue of the sovereign coin - the obverse shows the Queen seated on the coronation throne holding the orb and sceptre, with the legend ELIZABETH II DEI GRA REG FID DEF, while the reverse shows a crowned shield within a double rose and the legend ANNIVERSARY OF THE GOLD SOVEREIGN 1489-1989.
Since 1997 circulating £2 coins have been produced in cupronickel, and equivalent strikings in gold have been produced.
For other denominations, please see British coinage.
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