Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
This is a list of British princes from the accession of King George I in 1714. The title of prince is at the will of the sovereign, who can both grant and revoke the title. Individuals holding the title of prince will usually also be styled ‘’His Royal Highness’’ (HRH) or formerly ‘’His Highness’’ (HH). The sovereign grants the titles of prince and styles of HRH or HH through the use of letters patent, orders in council, or by another expression of the royal will. The wife of a British prince will usually take the title and style of her husband.
Prior to 1714, the title of prince and the style of HRH was not in common or customary usage. Sons and daughters of the sovereign were not automatically or traditionally called a prince or princess. An exception was the Prince of Wales, a title conferred on the eldest son of the sovereign since the reign of Edward I of England. Some others include John, brother of Richard the Lionheart and later John I of England, who is sometimes called Prince John.
After the accession of King George I, it became customary for the sons of the sovereign and grandsons of the sovereign in the male line to be titled Prince and styled HRH. Great-grandsons of the sovereign were princes styled HH. This was not a legal creation, but more customary, and in line with George I’s Hanoverian background. It also allowed the creation as the royal family of those in immediate line of succession to the throne, with royal titles and living in close proximity.
The titles of prince and princess for members of the royal family were used until Queen Victoria issued letters patent in 1864 which confirmed the practice. Subsequently some amendments were made, with the issuance of specific letters patent changing the title and style of the following groups:
- In 1898, the children of HRH Prince George, Duke of York, the eldest living son of HRH The Prince of Wales, were titled princes, with the style of HH, as great-grandchildren of Queen Victoria in the male line. Letters patent allowed the children of the eldest son of the Prince of Wales to be styled HRH.
- In 1914, the children of Prince Ernst August III of Hanover, Duke of Brunswick, a great-great-grandchild of George III, were granted the title of prince and the style HH by George V.
- In 1917, King George V issued a royal proclamation, altering the name of the Royal House from the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha to the House of Windsor. A few months later in that year, new letters patent altered the rights to the title prince and the style HRH. The letters patent stated that “the children of any Sovereign of the United Kingdom and the children of the sons of any such Sovereign (as per the Letters Patent of 1864) and the eldest living son of the eldest son of the Prince of Wales (a modification of the Letters Patent of 1898) shall have and at all times hold and enjoy the style, title or attribute of Royal Highness with their titular dignity of Prince or Princess prefixed to their respective Christian names or with their other titles of honour”. The effect of this was that great-grandchildren of the sovereign were no longer titled prince or princess, and were instead styled as the children of a duke. Also the Duke of Brunswick and his children were denied the title of prince. The 1917 letters patent remain in force today, excepting a few amendments and creations noted.
- After the abdication crisis in 1936, King George VI issued letters patent denying the title of prince and style HRH to the wife and descendants of HRH Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor. However, the marriage had no issue.
- In 1948 King George VI issued letters patent allowing the children of his son-in-law and daughter, TRH The Duke and Duchess of Edinburgh, to assume princely titles and the style HRH; they would not have been entitled to them ordinarily, as grandchildren in the female line, until their mother ascended the throne as Elizabeth II. Thus the current Prince of Wales was styled HRH Prince Charles of Edinburgh until his mother’s accession.
- Elizabeth II issued letters patent in 1956, creating HRH The Duke of Edinburgh a Prince of the United Kingdom. He was granted the HRH style in 1948 by George VI prior to his wedding to Princess Elizabeth.
- Elizabeth II issued letters patent in 1997, denying the style of HRH to former wives of divorced princes. Thus, HRH The Princess of Wales, wife of HRH The Prince of Wales, was denied the style on her divorce and became styled "Diana, Princess of Wales"; Sarah, Duchess of York, the former wife of HRH The Prince Andrew, Duke of York, was similarly affected because of her divorce from him.
- Elizabeth II made known her decision in 1999 that the children of her youngest son, HRH The Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, would not have the title prince/princess or the HRH style but instead use the titles of the children of an earl. For reasons of her own, the Queen chose not to issue letters patent in connection with this change but to have her decision announced by her press secretary. Since the form used to announce the royal will is entirely a matter for the sovereign, there is no doubt that this determination is fully effective.
Styles of British Princes
- Sons of sovereigns- HRH The Prince ‘’X’’, eg HRH The Prince Edward
- Grandchildren- HRH Prince ‘’X’’ of ‘’Y’’, where Y is the territorial designation of their father’s peerages, eg HRH Prince Michael of Kent
- Great-grandchildren- HH Prince ‘’X’’ of ‘’Y’’ (until 1917, as described above).
- The Prince of Wales is normally styled HRH The Prince of Wales,
- and royal dukes, HRH The Duke of Y. Royal dukes remain princes, however.
Wives of British princes take on their husbands' titles. If the prince has a peerage, the wife will become HRH and the female equivalent of the peerage rank, eg HRH The Countess of Wessex. If the prince has no peerage, as in the case of HRH Prince Michael of Kent, the wife will become HRH and will take the title Princess with her husband's name, eg HRH Princess Michael of Kent.
Following the marriage of the Prince of Wales to Camilla Parker Bowles on 9 April 2005 his new wife uses the stlye HRH The Duchess of Cornwall, using one of his peerage titles, instead of Princess of Wales.
These formal styles are not often used in the media or by the general public. The terms "Prince Charles", "Princess Diana" "Prince Andrew", "Prince Edward", "Princess Anne" and suchforth are most commonly heard, even though the persons involved may never have held that formal style.
List of British Princes since 1714
|Title at birth||Other titles held||Year of birth||Year of death||Notes. ,|
|HRH The Prince Adolphus Frederick||Duke of Cambridge||1774||1850||son of George III|
|HH Prince Albert of York||Duke of York||1895||1952||son of George V, succeeded as George VI|
|HSH Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha||HRH The Prince Consort||1819||1861||husband of Victoria, granted style of HRH in 1840 and then style of "Prince Consort"|
|HRH Prince Albert Victor||Duke of Clarence||1864||1892||son of Edward VII|
|HRH Prince Alfred||Duke of Edinburgh, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha||1844||1900||son of Queen Victoria|
|HRH The Prince Alfred||1780||1782||son of George III|
|HRH Prince Alfred of Edinburgh||1874||1899||grandson of Queen Victoria, son of Prince Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha|
|HRH The Prince Andrew||Duke of York||1960||-||son of Elizabeth II|
|HRH The Prince Arthur||Duke of Connaught and Strathearn||1850||1942||son of Queen Victoria|
|HRH Prince Arthur of Connaught||1883||1938||grandson of Queen Victoria|
|HH Prince Alastair of Connaught||Duke of Connaught||1914||1943||great grandson of Victoria, son of Prince Arthur of Connaught|
|HRH The Prince Augustus||Duke of Sussex||1773||1843||son of George III|
|HRH Prince Charles of Edinburgh||Prince of Wales, Duke of Cornwall, Duke of Rothesay||1948||-||son of Elizabeth II, heir apparent|
|HH Prince Christian of Cumberland and Hanover||1885||1901||great great grandson of George III, son of Ernst August of Hanover, 3rd Duke of Cumberland|
|HRH Prince Albert Edward||Emperor of India||1841||1910||son of Queen Victoria, succeeded as Edward VII|
|HH Prince Edward of York||HRH Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor||1894||1972||son of George V, succeeded as Edward VIII, abdicated and resumed princely title|
|HRH The Prince Edward||Earl of Wessex||1964||-||son of Elizabeth II|
|HRH Prince Edward of Kent||Duke of Kent||1935||-||grandson of George V|
|HRH The Prince Edward||Duke of Kent||1767||1820||son of George III, father of Queen Victoria|
|HRH Prince Edward Augustus of Wales||Duke of York||1739||1767||son of Frederick, Prince of Wales|
|HRH The Prince Ernest Augustus||King of Hanover||1771||1851||son of George III|
|HH Prince Ernst August (II) of Cumberland and Hanover||King of Hanover||1845||1923||great grandson of George III, son of George V of Hanover|
|HH Prince Ernst August (III) of Cumberland and Hanover||Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg||1887||1953||great great grandson of George III, son of Ernst August of Hanover, 3rd Duke of Cumberland|
|HH Prince Ernst August IV of Hanover and Brunswick-Luneburg||1914||1987||great great great grandson of George III, son of HH Prince Ernst August (III) of Cumberland and Hanover|
|Duke Friedrich Ludwig of Brunswick-Lüneburg||HRH Prince Frederick of Wales, Prince of Wales||1707||1751||son of George II|
|HRH The Prince Frederick Augustus||Duke of York||1763||1827||son of George III|
|HRH Prince Frederick William of Wales||1750||1765||son of Frederick, Prince of Wales|
|HRH Prince George of Wales||Duke of York, Prince of Wales||1865||1936||son of Edward VII, succeeded as George V|
|HRH The Prince George Augustus||HRH The Prince Regent, Prince of Wales||1762||1830||son of George III, succeeded as George IV|
|HRH Prince George of Wales||Prince of Wales||1738||1820||son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, succeeded as George III|
|HSH George, Prince Elect of Hanover||HRH The Prince George, Prince of Wales||1683||1760||son of George I, succeeded as George II|
|HRH Prince George of Cambridge||Duke of Cambridge||1819||1904||grandson of George III|
|HRH Prince George of Cumberalnd||King of Hanover||1819||1878||grandson of George III, son of Ernest I of Hanover|
|HRH Prince George of Wales||Duke of Kent||1902||1942||son of George V|
|HH Prince George of Hanover and Brunswick-Luneburg||1915||great great great grandson of George III, son of HH Prince Ernst August (III) of Cumberland and Hanover|
|HRH Prince George William||1717||1718||son of George II|
|HRH Prince Henry of Wales||Duke of Gloucester||1900||1974||son of George V|
|HRH Prince Henry of Wales "Prince Harry"||1984||son of Charles, Prince of Wales|
|HRH Prince Henry Frederick of Wales||Duke of Cumberland||1745||1790||son of Frederick, Prince of Wales|
|HH Prince Hubertus of Albany||1909||1943||great grandson of Queen Victoria, son of Prince Leopold Charles, Duke of Albany|
|HH Prince Johan Leopold of Albany||1906||1972||great grandson of Queen Victoria, son of Prince Leopold Charles, Duke of Albany|
|HRH Prince John of Wales (I)||1871||1871||son of Edward VII|
|HRH Prince John of Wales (II)||1905||1919||son of George V|
|HRH The Prince Leopold||Duke of Albany, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha||1853||1884||son of Queen Victoria|
|HRH Prince Leopold Charles, Duke of Albany||Duke of Albany, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha||1884||1954||grandson of Queen Victoria|
|HRH Prince Michael of Kent||1942||grandson of George V|
|HRH The Prince Octavius||1779||1783||son of George III|
|Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark||HRH Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh||1921||husband of Elizabeth II, styled HRH upon marriage in 1948, and created Prince of the United Kingdom in 1957|
|HRH Prince Richard of Gloucester||Duke of Gloucester||1944||grandson of George V|
|HRH The Prince William||Duke of Clarence||1765||1837||son of George III, succeeded as William IV|
|HRH Prince William of Wales||1982||son of Charles, Prince of Wales|
|HRH Prince William of Gloucester||1941||1972||grandson of George V, son of Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester|
|HRH Prince William Augustus||Duke of Cumberland||1721||1765||son of George II|
|HRH Prince William Henry of Wales||Duke of Gloucester||1743||1805||son of Frederick, Prince of Wales|
|HH Prince William of Gloucester||HRH Prince William, Duke of Gloucester||1776||1834||great grandson of George II, son of HRH Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester|
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