Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Buffy the Vampire Slayer
It first aired in March 1997 on the Warner Brothers network; after five seasons it transferred to the United Paramount Network (UPN) for two more seasons. The final episode aired in May 2003. The series was created by Joss Whedon, who also wrote the movie, and produced by Mutant Enemy Productions. The show's title is often abbreviated simply to Buffy or BtVS.
In addition to its critical success and cult appeal, the show functions as a contemporary parable, using supernatural elements as metaphors for personal anxieties, particularly those associated with adolescence and young adulthood.
Genesis, plot and format
Writer Joss Whedon created the show as an intentional departure from the typical horror film formula. "Traditional" horror films included countless scenes of young blonde girls either being hysterical victims, or being rescued by handsome well-armed male heroes. By reversing the cliché of the helpless female victim, Buffy presented a fresh paradigm which has been embraced by many as an emblem of female power. In Whedon's narrative, Buffy's male friend Xander is more likely to need rescuing. Buffy is more than capable of looking after herself. However, her personal life is as confusing and painful as any teenage girl's. This combination of empowerment and empathy has earned Buffy a passionate following among fans.
The show is set in the fictional California town of Sunnydale, whose suburban high school rests on the site of a "Hellmouth", a gateway between our world and the darker demon realms. The Hellmouth serves as a nexus for a wide variety of evil creatures and foul misdeeds. The portal of the Hellmouth is in the basement of Sunnydale High School, and as a result much of the paranormal activity is centered on the school. (The high school used in seasons 1 - 3 is actually Torrance High School, in Torrance, California. The school exterior is frequently used in other television shows and movies, most notably Beverly Hills 90210.)
The most prominent monsters in the Buffy bestiary are vampires, who are presented in the show in a variety of ways, selectively following traditional myths, lore, and literary conventions. Buffy and her companions also fight a wide variety of demons, shape-shifters, ghosts, gods, trolls and zombies, and are so frequently called upon to save the world from annihilation (usually at least a couple of times a season) that they quickly find themselves, as the character Riley Finn puts it, "needing to know the plural of apocalypse". The mythology of the show is often inspired by traditional supernatural sagas and other cultural, fictional, and religious sources. In its seven-year run, the series also developed an extensive contemporary mythology of its own. The supernatural elements of the show almost always have a clear metaphorical or symbolic aspect.
Buffy (portrayed by Sarah Michelle Gellar) is "The Slayer", one in a long line of (often short-lived) young girls chosen by fate to battle the forces of darkness. This calling also mystically endows her with dramatically increased physical strength, endurance, agility, intuition, accelerated healing, and a limited degree of clairvoyance, usually in the form of prophetic dreams. Buffy fights under the direction of her "Watcher", Giles (Anthony Stewart Head), who begins the series as the high school's librarian.
She is also assisted by several friends, who later in the series are nicknamed the "Scooby Gang" because of their distant resemblance to the teens in the cartoon Scooby Doo. Coincidentally, Gellar played one of the actual Scooby Gang, Daphne, in the movies Scooby Doo and Scooby Doo 2.
The group battles demonic forces using a combination of physical combat (usually undertaken by Buffy), detective work, various forms of magic and sorcery (usually performed by Willow Rosenberg, whose magical prowess begins to blossom in the third season), and the extensive research of ancient and mystical texts (chiefly the preserve of Giles).
The show is noteworthy in part for its agile blending of genres, including horror, martial arts, romance, melodrama, farce, and witty comic banter. Unlike the movie, which, for the most part, was poorly received (and practically disowned by its author, Whedon), the TV series achieved great popular and critical success, appreciated equally by middle-aged TV critics and its primarily teen/twentysomething audience. Many attribute the show's success to the smartly written scripts and inspired vision of Whedon. The show and characters inspire an unusually strong emotional connection with fans.
Buffy has also been noted for taking artistic risks in both format and content. The 1999 episode "Hush" included 26 minutes without any spoken dialog, and received an Emmy Award nomination for best teleplay. The 2001 episode "The Body", which revolved around the death of Buffy's mother, Joyce Summers, and which used no non-diegetic music, was included in over 100 major critics' Ten Best lists that year. The fall 2001 musical episode "Once More, With Feeling" has also received many plaudits.
Many Buffy stories are thinly veiled metaphors for the anxieties and ordeals of adolescence or young adulthood. In "Out of Sight, Out of Mind " invisibility is used as a metaphor for being ignored. In "The Pack", Xander and other teens become possessed by hyenas, which allegorizes the pack mentality that often results from negative peer pressure. Perhaps the show's most celebrated metaphor occurs after Buffy and Angel consummate their love: Buffy loses her virginity, and Angel loses his soul. As Sarah Michelle Gellar puts it: "That's the ultimate metaphor. You sleep with a guy and he turns bad on you."
The show has also garnered criticism for this and other ostensibly "puritanical" subtexts. Rather than endorsing a particular moral stance, Whedon argues that the show is much more concerned with consequences and the role they play in gratifying the audience's emotional investment in the story - though this gratification is seldom a simple matter of wish fulfilment:
- [ I ] Don't give people what they want, [ I ] give them what they need.
- What they want is for Sam and Diane to get together. [...] Don't give it to them. Trust me. [...] No one's going to go see the story of Othello going to get a peaceful divorce. People want the tragedy. [...] Things have to go wrong, bad things have to happen. 
While fans may joke about characters being punished for sex, Whedon has insisted that the show must earn its emotional moments; to this end, his characters are generally - often painfully - obliged to answer for their actions. For instance, when Buffy's friends resurrect her in season 6 after her death at the end of season 5, they accidentally conjure a demon as a sort of cosmic debt. In the long run, as a result of her resurrection, Buffy spends most of season 6 depressed (and enmeshed in a sadomasochistic sexual relationship with the vampire Spike). Worse, because of the magical mojo wrought on the Slayer by Willow, The First Evil is able to wage war on the slayer lineage in season 7.
Whedon has noted that it was always his desire to have a gay character on the show. As Buffy's main premise involved characters who were stereotyped as weak outsiders becoming strong and powerful, he initially wanted to have a gay male character. Eventually, however, it was decided that the character of Willow would discover her sapphic destiny (at the very time she was awakening to her Wiccan superpowers), and in season four she began a romantic relationship with the character of Tara. This created some controversy in the media: the producers and the network received criticism, both from those opposed to gay characters on television, and from some pro-gay viewers who felt that the initial physical tepidness of the relationship, as well as the fact that the gay characters were both "witches", reinforced negative stereotypes. Others accused the writers of tokenism and sensationalism. The show's creative team insisted that their intent was not to sensationalize or exploit the gay relationship, and displays of physical affection between the two characters were introduced very slowly, eventually becoming a natural part of the show. The culmination of this conflict occurred with Tara's death at the end of season 6, which was a catalyst for Willow to turn evil, ultimately killing Tara's murderer and bringing the world to the brink of yet another apocalypse. Some fans bemoaned the death of the "best" lesbian relationship on TV, and others criticized what they viewed as a clichéd resolution to a topic TV rarely gifts with a happy ending: Tara's death, some argued, reiterated a long and hackneyed tradition in which doomed or damned lesbians are apparently punished for their "sins" by a brutal and untimely demise. Willow's subsequent relationship with another lesbian character, the potential Slayer Kennedy, may have been an attempt to defuse this criticism.
Whedon has stated that he is a fan of serialized fiction, and to this end each season, rather than being purely episodic, tends to follow a largely self-contained story arc, with its own unique villain. This "Big Bad" is often preceded by a "Little Bad", a minor villain introduced to throw viewers off-track.
Buffy is credited (alongside the teen drama Dawson's Creek) with playing a key role in the success of the Warner Brothers television network in its early years, which raises the question, however, of why the network dropped the popular television show.
Whedon has often noted the impact that comic books have had on his work. He is currently writing for the Astonishing X-Men series and has credited Kitty Pryde as a significant influence on the character of Buffy.
Works inspired by Buffy
Buffy's perpetually tragic, doomed love for the vampire-with-a-soul, Angel, played by David Boreanaz, was a recurrent theme in the first three seasons of the show. Angelus, as he was originally known, had his human soul restored by a gypsy curse, plaguing him with guilt over the one hundred and forty-five years of murder and mayhem he had inflicted on a slew of innocent victims. The Angel character was so popular that a series featuring him, Angel, was spun off from Buffy; there were occasional "crossovers" between the two shows and these continued into the final season of Angel even though Buffy was no longer on the air.
Angel and Buffy have both inspired several comic book adaptations, magazines, companion books, novelizations, video games, and a card game , as well as several spinoff proposals (including a cartoon series and a BBC drama), and countless websites, online discussion groups, and works of fan fiction. There have also been two soundtrack albums (Buffy the Vampire Slayer: The Album and Buffy the Vampire Slayer: Radio Sunnydale - Music from the TV Series), as well as a CD (and, in Europe, DVD single) of the "Once More, With Feeling" musical episode.
There have also been a number of spoofs of the show, including a Hobbit version of "Once More With Feeling" entitled "Once More With Hobbits", and a Saturday Night Live sketch which relocated the Slayer, played by guest host Sarah Michelle Gellar, to the Seinfeld universe.
The show has inspired several academic books and essays, including Reading the Vampire Slayer, edited by Roz Kaveney, and Buffy the Vampire Slayer and Philosophy edited by James B. South. Academic courses known as "Buffy Studies" are being offered at an increasing number of universities. Fans of both Buffy and Angel often use the term "Buffyverse" to describe the rich universe the shows share.
As well as these extracurricular offspring, Buffy has exerted a marked influence on TV and film, with shows such as Smallville and Charmed as well as movies such as The Faculty and Bring It On owing something in their verbal style and (in the first three instances) thematic concerns to the show. In addition, many Buffy alumni have gone on to write for or create other shows, some of which bear a striking resemblance to the outer reaches of the Buffyverse. Such Whedonesque endeavors include Tru Calling (Doug Petrie ), Wonderfalls (Tim Minear), Still Life (Marti Noxon) and Jake 2.0 (David Greenwalt ).
Moreover, fall 2003 saw a number of new shows going into production in the US that featured strong girls/young women forced to come to terms with some supernatural power or destiny while trying to maintain a normal life. These "post-Buffy" shows include the aforementioned Tru Calling and Wonderfalls, as well as Dead Like Me and Joan of Arcadia. In the words of Bryan Fuller , the creator of Dead Like Me and Wonderfalls:
- [Buffy] really turned a corner for series storytelling. It showed that young women could be in situations that were both fantastic and relatable, and instead of shunting women off to the side, it put them at the center.
See also - List of Buffy the Vampire Slayer episodes.
- Season One (1997)
- Season Two (1997-1998)
- Season Three (1998-1999)
- Season Four (1999-2000)
- Season Five (2000-2001)
- Season Six (2001-2002)
- Season Seven (2002-2003)
Featured in the opening credits
- Buffy Summers: (a.k.a. Anne a.k.a. Joan) Sarah Michelle Gellar
- Willow Rosenberg: Alyson Hannigan - credited 'and Alyson Hannigan as Willow' in seasons six and seven
- Alexander 'Xander' Lavelle Harris: Nicholas Brendon
- Cordelia Chase: Charisma Carpenter (S1E1 - S3E22)
- Angel (a.k.a. Angelus, a.k.a. Liam): David Boreanaz (S2E1 - S3E22, recurring previously and thereafter)
- Daniel 'Oz' Osborne: Seth Green (S3E1 - S4E6, recurring previously, appearing twice afterwards)
- Riley Finn: Marc Blucas (S4E11 - S5E10, recurring previously, appearing once afterwards)
- Anya Jenkins (a.k.a. Anyanka a.k.a. Anya Emerson): Emma Caulfield (S5E1 - S7E22, recurring previously)
- Dawn Summers: Michelle Trachtenberg (S5E2 - S7E22, appearing once previously)
- Tara Maclay: Amber Benson (S6E19, recurring previously)
- Spike (a.k.a. William the Bloody): James Marsters (S4E7 - S7E22, recurring previously)
- Rupert Giles (a.k.a. Ripper): Anthony Stewart Head (S1E1 - S5E22, recurring thereafter) - credited 'and Anthony Stewart Head as Giles'
Recurring guest stars
- Joyce Summers: Kristine Sutherland (1997-2001, 2002)
- Principal Snyder: Armin Shimerman (1997-1999, 2000)
- Faith: Eliza Dushku (1998-1999, 2000, 2003)
- Jenny Calendar: Robia La Morte (1997-1998, 1999)
- Drusilla: Juliet Landau (1997-1998, 2001, 2002)
Big (& Little) Bads
- Season 1 - The Master (Darla)
- Season 2 - Angelus (The Anointed One, Spike & Drusilla)
- Season 3 - Mayor Richard Wilkins III and Faith (Mr. Trick)
- Season 4 - Adam (The Initiative)
- Season 5 - Glory (The Knights of Byzantium)
- Season 6 - Life & Dark Willow (Warren Mears, Jonathan Levinson, Andrew Wells)
- Season 7 - The First Evil (Caleb)
- Jesse McNally, played by Eric Balfour
- The Master, played by Mark Metcalf
- Darla, played by Julie Benz
- Principal Flutie, played by Ken Lerner
- Harmony Kendall, played by Mercedes McNab
- Amy Madison, played by Elizabeth Anne Allen
- The Anointed One, played by Andrew J. Ferchland
- Hank Summers, played by Dean Butler
- Jonathan Levinson, played by Danny Strong
- Devon MacLeish, played by Jason Hall
- Larry Blaisdell, played by Larry Bagby
- Ethan Rayne, played by Robin Sachs
- Chantarelle/Lily/Anne, played by Julia Lee
- Kendra, played by Bianca Lawson
- Willy the Snitch, played by Saverio Guerra
- Mr. Trick, played by K. Todd Freeman
- Scott Hope, played by Fab Filippo
- Mayor Richard Wilkins III, played by Harry Groener
- Quentin Travers, played by Harris Yulin
- Wesley Wyndam-Pryce, played by Alexis Denisof
- D'Hoffryn, played by Andy Umberger
- Percy West, played by Ethan Erickson
- Olivia, played by Phina Oruche
- Parker Abrams, played by Adam Kaufman
- Veruca, played by Paige Moss
- Maggie Walsh: played by Lindsay Crouse
- Forrest Gates, played by Leonard Roberts
- Graham Miller, played by Bailey Chase
- Adam, played by George Hertzberg
- Ben, played by Charlie Weber
- Glory, played by Clare Kramer
- Jinx, played by Troy Blendell
- Warren Mears, played by Adam Busch
- Katrina Silber, played by Amelinda Embry
- Murk, played by Todd Duffey
- Doc, played by Joel Grey
- Buffybot, a robot Buffy played by Sarah Michelle Gellar
- Andrew Wells, played by Thomas Lenk
- Clem, played by James Charles Leary
- Janice, played by Amber Tamblyn (she is only seen once, but mentioned numerous times)
- Halfrek/Cecily, played by Kali Rocha
- Principal Robin Wood, played by D.B. Woodside
- Cassie Newton, played by Azura Skye
- Kennedy, played by Iyari Limon
- Molly, played by Clara Bryant
- Rona, played by Alyssa Ashley Nichols
- Vi, played by Felicia Day
- Amanda , played by Sarah Hagan
- Chao-Ahn, played by Kristy Wu
- Caridad , played by Dania Ramirez
(See episode entries for details on translation)
- Finnish: Buffy, vampyyrintappaja ("Buffy, killer of vampires"); "Slayer" is Tappaja ("Killer"), and "Watcher" is Valvoja ("Watcher", "Overseer").
- French: Buffy Contre les Vampires ("Buffy versus the vampires"); "slayer" is la Tueuse ("the Killer"), and "Watcher" is l'Observateur in Europe ("the Watcher")
- Hebrew: באפי ציידת הערפדים ("Buffy the vampires hunter"); "Slayer" is קוטלת ("Slayer"), and "Watcher" is צופה ("Watcher").
- Hungarian: Buffy a vámpírok réme (Roughly, "Vampires are afraid of Buffy:"); slayer is Vadász ("Hunter") and "Watcher" is Őrző (Keeper, Watcher)
- German: Buffy im Bann der Dämonen (Roughly, "Buffy enthralled by demons"); "Slayer" is translated as die Jägerin ("Huntress"), "Watcher" as der Wächter ("guardian").
- Italian: Buffy l'Ammazza Vampiri ("Buffy The Vampires Killer"); "Slayer" is Cacciatrice ("huntress"), and "Watcher" is Osservatore ("Watchman").
- Japanese: バフィー～恋する十字架 / Bafii koi suru juujika ("Buffy to love the Cross of Christ "); バフィー; / Bafii is "Buffy", ～恋する; / koi suru is "to love", and 十字架; / juujika is "the Cross of Christ".
- Portuguese: Buffy, a Caçadora de Vampiros ("Buffy the Vampire Huntress"); "Slayer" is a Caçadora ("the huntress"), and "Watcher" is o Vigilante ("the Watchman").
- Spanish: Buffy, cazavampiros ("Buffy, vampire hunter"); "Slayer" is Cazadora ("huntress"), and "Watcher" is Vigilante ("Watchman").
- Swedish: Buffy & vampyrerna ("Buffy & The Vampires"); "Slayer" is Dråpare ("Slayer"), and "Watcher" is Väktare ("Watchman").
- Slayer - the Slayer mythos
- Buffy the Vampire Slayer season-by-season plot summary
- List of Buffy the Vampire Slayer episodes
- Angel (TV series)
- Cliff Richards, comic book artist
- Girl Heroes
- Minor characters of Buffy the Vampire Slayer
- BuffyWorld.com: Buffy and Angel Episode Guide
- Buffy the Vampire Slayer Reviews - Reviews and literary analysis of each episode from Season Three onwards
- The Buffy Body Count episode synopses
- The Phoenix Board aka Buffistas
- Buffy Directory
- Buffy Fanfic
- Buffy News: slayage.com
- The season to talk to dead people
- Slayage: The Online International Journal of Buffy Studies
- Whedonesque: Joss Whedon weblog
- WhedonWiki: the Joss Whedon Wiki
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