Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
This article describes the men's leagues. See also: Women's Bundesliga. The text below was translated from the German version; it has been cleaned up a little, but still needs significant work. However, there is a wealth of information not contained in the English version...
In football (soccer), Bundesliga refers to the highest national league club competitions in German and Austrian football, where the German football champions and the Austrian football champions , respectively, are determined.
In Germany the Bundesliga is the national league, comprised of two divisions, the First Bundesliga, and below that the Second Bundesliga. The First Bundesliga is usually called just "Bundesliga" or "The Bundesliga", but the Second Bundesliga is always qualified. Until 2001, the Bundesliga was directly under the control of the German soccer governing body Deutscher Fußball-Bund (DFB). This changed with the formation of the Deutsche Fußball-Liga (German Football League). The Bundesliga is now in the responsibility of the German Football League. The Second Bundesliga has been the division below the First Bundesliga since 1974. Until 1981 (and again during the 1991/92 season to cope with the East German first league teams after the German Reunification), the Second Bundesliga was separated into two divisions - North and South. Like other national leagues, there are significant financial benefits to being in the top division:
- The teams in the first league get a higher amount of the TV license income.
Every team in the Bundesliga must have a license to play in the league, or else they get relegated into the minor leagues. Only financially healthy teams can get the license.
Presently, at the end of every season, the bottom 3 teams of the First Bundesliga are relegated to the Second Bundesliga, and the top 3 finishers of the Second Bundesliga move into the First; for the next season.
The season starts in early August and lasts until late May, with a mid-season pause of 6 weeks (second half of December through the end of January). The games are played on Saturdays and Sundays -- 7 games on Saturdays and 2 games on Sundays.
By 1932, the DFB president at the time, Felix Linnemann , demanded the introduction of a "Reichsliga", a professional league, in which the best associations should play for the German football championship. The project was rejected however by the regional federations. Until the sixties the highest leagues in Germany were the regional Upper Leagues (Oberligen). The German champion was chosen among the champions of the Upper leagues in group plays and a final match.
In 1962 a few weeks, after the German national team had lost the quarter final of the 1962 World Cup in Chile, the DFB president Hermann Neuberger suggested the creation of a uniform national league again. On July 28, 1962 in Dortmund, the DFB national assembly finally decided to introduce a federal league starting with the 1963/64 season.
Originally 16 teams played in the league, whereby five came each from the upper league south and the upper league west, three from the upper league north, two from the upper league southwest, and one team came from the upper league Berlin. Success on the field and economic criteria were to determine which teams would be selected to the league. Altogether, 46 clubs applied for the admission to the federal league.
The original clubs in the Bundesliga
- From the upper league north
- From the upper league west
- From upper league southwest
- From the upper league south
- From the upper league Berlin
In the 1964/65 season, the licens of Hertha BSC Berlin was revoked because of too high player payments, and the club was relegated to the regional league (Regionalliga) (at that time the league below the Bundesliga). Originally also the Karlsruher SC and the FC Schalke 04 were to be relegated because they finished last in the league, both clubs raised objection, however. Thereupon it was decided to increase the number of clubs on 18 and to suspend relegation for one season. Since it was decided that there should be a first league football team in the former capital Berlin, Tasmania 1900 Berlin was promoted to the first league; only to become the worst team in Bundesliga history and be relegated after one season.
At the beginning of the 70s the federal league lost a lot of reputation due to the so called Bundesliga Scandals . But this soon was to be remedied after the German win at the 1974 World Cup, which was held in West Germany.
In the 80s there was a general decline in attendances in the federal league. This was, among other things, because of the fact that several Germans stars were transferred to foreign leagues and, in addition, the increasing problem of hooliganism.
In 1991, a year after German reunification, the German Football Federation of the GDR , the association of East Germany merged into the DFB, the association of West Germany. With the adjustment of the East German league system to the West German league system, two teams from the East German first league (DDR-Oberliga) were incorporated into the Bundesliga. The league therefore temporarily consisted of 20 clubs for the 1991/92 season.
Since the beginning of the 90s, the Bundesliga again enjoyed increasing popularity in Germany. This was on one hand due to sporting success of the German national football team (third World Cup title in 1990 and third European Championships title in 1996). On the other hand the federal league was purposefully marketed in the media in recent years, which entailed partly a certain star cult of the players.
The first game of the newly formed Bundesliga was played on August 24, 1963; since that time, 48 clubs have played in the Bundesliga. It is probably no coincidence that on the 40th anniversary of the launch of the current Bundesliga, two clubs with a very special meaning for the league met in a game: Hamburger SV, the "dinosaur"—i.e. the only club which has played in the first league in every season of its existence, and "German record champion" Bayern Munich, which had just won their 17th premiership title (the first title of 1932 not taken into consideration).
The German football champion is decided strictly by play in the Bundesliga. Each club plays every other club once at home and once away. Originally, a victory was worth 2 points, with a draw worth 1 point and a loss no points. Since the 1995/96 season, a victory has been worth 3 points, with no change in the value of a draw or loss. The club with the most points at the end of the season becomes the German champion. Currently, the top two clubs in the table qualify automatically for the group phase of the Champions League, while the third-place team enters the Champions League at the third qualifying round (see overview). The three teams at the bottom of the table are relegated into the 2nd Bundesliga, while the top three teams in the 2nd Bundesliga are promoted (see overview).
If teams are level on points, tiebreakers are applied in the following order:
- Goal difference for the entire season.
- Head-to-head results (total points).
- Head-to-head goal difference.
- Total goals scored for the entire season.
If two clubs are still tied after all of these tiebreakers have been applied, a single match is held at a neutral site to determine the placement. However, this has never been necessary in the history of the Bundesliga.
Changes In League Structure
- Number of teams:
- Number of teams relegated (automatic relegation except as noted):
- 1963-1974: 2, determined by a relegation round
- 1981-1991: 2 automatic; the 16th-place team in the First Bundesliga played a test match against the third-place team of the Second Bundesliga for the final spot in the First Bundesliga
- 1991/92: 4
- Since 1992: 3
Overview: European Qualification (as of 2004/05)
- 1st place: German football champion
- 1st and 2nd place: Group phase of UEFA Champions League
- 3rd place: Third qualifying round for Champions League. Winners at this stage enter the group phase; losers enter the UEFA Cup.
- DFB-Pokal (German Cup) winner: Qualifies for UEFA Cup, regardless of league position. If the Cup winner has qualified for the Champions League, the losing finalist will enter the UEFA Cup. For example, although the Second Bundesliga side Alemannia Aachen lost to Werder Bremen in the 2004 DFB-Pokal final, Alemannia secured an entry in the 2004/05 UEFA Cup, because Werder qualified for the Champions League as First Bundesliga champions. If both Cup finalists have qualified for the Champions League, an extra UEFA Cup place is granted on the basis of First Bundesliga position.
- 4th - 5th place: Qualify for UEFA Cup
- 16th - 18th place: Relegated to 2nd Bundesliga.
Up to three other First Bundesliga clubs can participate in the UEFA Intertoto Cup, with priority for entry dependent on league position. The number of German clubs which may participate in UEFA competitions is determined by a formula that takes into account the results of a particular nation's clubs in UEFA competitions over the preceding five years (known as the UEFA coefficient ranking list ).
European qualification: History
- European Cup/Champions League:
- Up to and including 1996/97: German champion only
- 1997-99: Top two teams
- 1999-present: Top two teams automatically into first group phase (only one group phase starting in 2003/04). Depending on the DFB's standing in the UEFA coefficient ranking list , either one or two other clubs enter at the third qualifying round; winners at this level enter the group phase.
- UEFA Cup:
- Starting with the 1999/2000 season, the DFB-Pokal winner automatically qualifies. Depending on the DFB's standing in the UEFA coefficient ranking list, anywhere from 0 to 3 extra participants can enter. Since the Cup Winners' Cup was folded into the UEFA Cup after 1999, the DFB has always been entitled to enter a minimum of three clubs in the UEFA Cup, and has been able to enter as many as four (the maximum for any European federation).
- Cup Winners' Cup (abolished after 1999):
- DFB-Pokal winner entered the Cup Winners' Cup. Today, that club will enter the UEFA Cup.
1963/64 | 1964/65 | 1965/66 | 1966/67 | 1967/68 | 1968/69 | 1969/70 | 1970/71 | 1971/72 | 1972/73 | 1973/74 | 1974/75 | 1975/76 | 1976/77 | 1977/78 | 1978/79 | 1979/80 | 1980/81 | 1981/82 | 1982/83 | 1983/84 | 1984/85 | 1985/86 | 1986/87 | 1987/88 | 1988/89 | 1989/90 | 1990/91 | 1991/92 | 1992/93 | 1993/94 | 1994/95 | 1995/96 | 1996/97 | 1997/98 | 1998/99 | 1999/2000 | 2000/01 | 2001/02 | 2002/03 | 2003/04
German Champions (1903-2004)
|1. FC Bayern München||18|
|2. BFC Dynamo||10|
|3. 1. FC Nürnberg||9|
|4. Dynamo Dresden||7|
|4. Hamburger SV||7|
|4. Schalke 04||7|
|7. Borussia Dortmund||6|
|8. Wismut Karl-Marx-Stadt||5|
|8. Borussia Mönchengladbach||5|
|10. Vorwärts Berlin||4|
|10. Werder Bremen||4|
|10. 1. FC Kaiserslautern||4|
|10. VfB Stuttgart||4|
|14. VfB Leipzig||3|
|14. SpVgg Fürth||3|
|14. 1.FC Köln||3|
|17. Viktoria Berlin||2|
|17. Chemie Leipzig||2|
|17. Turbine Erfurt||2|
|17. Carl Zeiss Jena||2|
|17. Dresdener SC||2|
|17. Hannover 96||2|
|17. Hertha BSC Berlin||2|
One German championship:
- Union Berlin
- Freiburger FC
- Union Halle
- Horch Zwickau
- T. Halle
- Motor Jena
- 1. FC Dynamo Dresden
- Hansa Rostock
- Phoenix Karlsruhe
- Karlsruher FV
- Holstein Kiel
- Fortuna Düsseldorf
- Rapid Wien
- VfR Mannheim
- E. Frankfurt
- Rot-Weiss Essen
- 1860 München
- Eintracht Braunschweig
Top Ten Highest Goalscorers
- Gerd Müller (1965 - 1979) 365 Goals
- Klaus Fischer (1968 - 1988) 268 Goals
- Jupp Heynckes (1965 - 1978) 220 Goals
- Manfred Burgsmüller (1969 - 1990) 213 Goals
- Ulf Kirsten (1990 - 2003) 182 Goals
- Stefan Kuntz (1983 - 1999) 179 Goals
- Klaus Allofs (1975 - 1993) 177 Goals
- Dieter Müller (1973 - 1986) 177 Goals
- Hennes Löhr (1964 - 1977) 166 Goals
- Karl-Heinz Rummenigge (1974 - 1984) 162 Goals
Top Ten Players With Most Appearances
- Karl-Heinz Körbel (1972 - 1991) 602 Games
- Manfred Kaltz (1971 - 1991) 581 Games
- Klaus Fichtel (1965 - 1988) 552 Games
- Mirko Votava (1976 - 1996) 546 Games
- Klaus Fischer (1968 - 1988) 535 Games
- Eike Immel (1978 - 1995) 534 Games
- Willi Neuberger (1966 - 1983) 520 Games
- Michael Lameck (1972 - 1988) 518 Games
- Uli Stein (1978 - 1997) 512 Games
- Stefan Reuter (1985 - 2004) 500 Games
- Most own goals scored: 6 by Manfred Kaltz of Hamburger SV.
- The oldest player was Klaus Fichtel of Werder Bremen (43 years old).
- Most red cards received so far: Stefan Effenberg, Torsten Kracht and Jens Nowotny (7 each).
- Most goals scored by penalties: Manfred Kaltz (53 with 7 missed penalties).
- Most goals conceded by a goalkeeper: 829 by Eike Immel (in 534 games).
- Most clean sheets by a goalkeeper: 173 by Oliver Reck (in 471 games).
- Most championships won as player: 7 by Lothar Matthäus and Klaus Augenthaler .
- Most championships won as coach: 8 by Udo Lattek .
- Most games as coach: 820 by Otto Rehhagel, followed by Erich Ribbeck with 569.
Members of the First Bundesliga (Season 2004/2005)
- Hertha BSC Berlin
- Arminia Bielefeld
- VfL Bochum
- Werder Bremen
- Borussia Dortmund
- SC Freiburg
- Hamburger SV
- Hannover 96
- 1. FC Kaiserslautern
- Bayer Leverkusen
- FSV Mainz 05
- Borussia Mönchengladbach
- Bayern München
- 1. FC Nürnberg
- Hansa Rostock
- Schalke 04
- VfB Stuttgart
- VfL Wolfsburg
In the above list, Arminia Bielefeld, FSV Mainz 05 and 1. FC Nürnberg have just moved into the First Bundesliga replacing Eintracht Frankfurt, TSV 1860 Munich and 1. FC Köln who finished at the bottom 3 spots of the table at the end of the 2003/04 season and thus, were relegated to the Second Bundesliga.
1974 saw the launch of the Second Bundesliga as a division below the Bundesliga. 40 teams in two divisions (North & South) competed for the first time for the promotion to the premier football league. In 1981, the two divisions were merged into a single Second Bundesliga with 20 teams. Starting with the 91/92 season, teams from the former GDR (East Germany) also participated. Since 1994/95, the 2nd Bundesliga has 18 teams just like the first Bundesliga.
Changes in the league rules
- Number of clubs: 18; 1981-91 was it 20. 1991/92 were played in two groups of 12 teams each; 1992/93 again in one group with 24 teams, 1993/94 with 20 teams.
- Number of promotions into the first league: 3; 1981-91 there was a relegation round (see above), in 1991/92 there was 1 promotion per group.
- Number of relegations to the regional league (until 1994: Upper league): 4; 1991/92: 2-3 per group (inclusive relegation); 1992/93: 7.
Overview: Promotion and relegation
- 1st - 3rd place: Promotion into the Bundesliga
- 15th - 18th place: Relegation into regional league
Champions since 1975
Second Bundesliga North
- 1974/75 : Hannover 96
- 1975/76 : Tennis Borussia Berlin
- 1976/77 : FC St. Pauli
- 1977/78 : Arminia Bielefeld
- 1978/79 : Bayer 04 Leverkusen
- 1979/80 : Arminia Bielefeld
- 1980/81 : Werder Bremen
Second Bundesliga South
- 1974/75 : Karlsruher SC
- 1975/76 : 1. FC Saarbrücken
- 1976/77 : VfB Stuttgart
- 1977/78 : SV Darmstadt 98
- 1978/79 : TSV 1860 München
- 1979/80 : 1. FC Nürnberg
- 1980/81 : SV Darmstadt 98
- 1981/82 : FC Schalke 04
- 1982/83 : SV Waldhof
- 1983/84 : Karlsruher SC
- 1984/85 : 1.FC Nürnberg
- 1985/86 : FC Homburg
- 1986/87 : Hannover 96
- 1987/88 : Stuttgarter Kickers
- 1988/89 : Fortuna Düsseldorf
- 1989/90 : Hertha BSC Berlin
- 1990/91 : FC Schalke 04
- 1991/92 north : Bayer 05 Uerdingen
- 1991/92 south : 1. FC Saarbrücken
- 1992/93 : SC Freiburg
- 1993/94 : VfL Bochum
- 1994/95 : FC Hansa Rostock
- 1995/96 : VfL Bochum
- 1996/97 : 1.FC Kaiserslautern
- 1997/98 : Eintracht Frankfurt
- 1998/99 : Arminia Bielefeld
- 1999/00 : 1.FC Köln
- 2000/01 : 1.FC Nürnberg
- 2001/02 : Hannover 96
- 2002/03 : SC Freiburg
- 2003/04 : 1.FC Nürnberg
The promotions were decided from 1974 to 1994 in relegation rounds. Since 1995 there are 4 promotions from the regional leagues.
The promoted teams since 1995
- 1995: SpVgg Unterhaching, VfB Lübeck, Carl Zeiss Jena, Arminia Bielefeld
- 1996: VfB Oldenburg, Rot-Weiß Essen, FC Gütersloh, Stuttgarter Kickers
- 1997: Greuther Fürth, Energie Cottbus, SG Wattenscheid 09, 1. FC Nürnberg
- 1998: SSV Ulm 1846, Rot-Weiß Oberhausen, Hannover 96, TeBe Berlin
- 1999: Waldhof Mannheim, Kickers Offenbach, Chemnitzer FC, Alemannia Aachen
- 2000: LR Ahlen, SSV Reutlingen, 1st FC Saarbrücken, VfL Osnabrück
- 2001: SV Babelsberg 03, 1st FC Union Berlin, Karlsruher SC, 1st FC Schweinfurt 05
- 2002: Wacker Burghausen, Eintracht Trier, VfB Lübeck, Eintracht Braunschweig
- 2003: Jahn Regensburg, SpVgg Unterhaching, Erzgebirge Aue , VfL Osnabrück
- 2004: Rot-Weiß Erfurt, Rot-Weiß Essen, 1st FC Saarbrücken, Dynamo Dresden
The sports club Fortuna Köln was one of the most consistent clubs in the Second Bundesliga. Until 2000 it played 26 years continuously in the Second Bundesliga.
- http://www.dfb.de - German football federation (DFB)
- http://www.dfb.de/bliga/bundes/index.html - federal league archives
The highest Austrian football league currently carries the name of the sponsor, and thus has the complete designation "T-Mobile Bundesliga".
Red Zac 1st League
The second division in Austrian football is called "Red Zac 1st league" at the moment, also because of a sponsor.
- Austrian champions (football)
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