Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
|Motto: Heart of the new west|
|Area:||712.14 sq. km.|
- Total (2004)
|Time zone||Mountain: UTC-7|
|Diane Ablonczy, Rob Anders, Art Hanger, Stephen Harper, Jason Kenney, Deepak Obhrai, Jim Prentice, Lee Richardson|
|Cindy Ady , Moe Amery , Neil Brown , Wayne Cao, Harvey Cenaiko , Harry B. Chase, Alana DeLong , Heather Forsyth , Yvonne Fritz , Denis Herard , Art Johnston , Ralph Klein, Ron Liepert , Richard Magnus , Gary Mar , Greg Melchin , Hung Pham , Dave Rodney , Shiraz Shariff , Ron Stevens, David Swann, Dave Taylor , Len Webber|
|Governing body||Calgary City Council|
|City of Calgary|
Calgary is a city in the province of Alberta, Canada. It is situated in the south of the province, in a region of foothills and high plains, approximately 80 km east of the front ranges of the Canadian Rocky Mountains. As of 2004, the metropolitan population (CMA) was at an estimated 1,037,100. Calgary is the largest city in Alberta and the third largest by population in Canada. It serves as the hub of the fifth largest Census Metropolitan Area in the country and is located within the densely populated "Calgary-Edmonton Corridor" (one of four such regions that, in total, comprise 50% of the Canadian population). It is the largest Canadian metropolitan area west of Toronto and east of Vancouver. Calgary has the second highest concentration of head offices in Canada.
Calgary is a four-season playground with professional sport teams, world-class winter resorts and internationally renowned wilderness all within easy reach of this vibrant metropolitan city. It is a Canadian transportation centre and a central cargo hub for European freight into and out of north-western North America.
Calgary's economy is largely centred on the petroleum industry, with agriculture, tourism, and the high-tech industries contributing to the city's rapid economic growth.
First settlementBlackfoot people whose presence has been traced back at least 11,000 years. In 1787 cartographer David Thompson spent the winter with a band of Peigan Indians encamped along the Bow River. He was the first recorded European to visit the area. By 1860 settlers began arriving to hunt buffalo and sell illegal whiskey.
The first recorded settler in Calgary was rancher Sam Livingston in the early 1870s, and in 1875 the site became a post of the North West Mounted Police (now the RCMP). Originally named Fort Brisbois, it was renamed Fort Calgary in 1876. The detachment was assigned to protect the western plains from US whiskey traders. Fort Calgary was named by Colonel James MacLeod after Calgary (Cala-ghearraidh, Beach of the pasture) on the Isle of Mull, Scotland. When the Canadian Pacific Railway reached the area and a rail station was constructed, Calgary began to grow into an important commercial and agricultural centre. The Canadian Pacific Railway headquarters are located in Calgary today. Calgary was officially incorporated as a town in 1884 and elected its first mayor, George Murdoch. In 1894, Calgary became the first city in what was then, the Northwest Territories.
The oil boom
Oil was first discovered in Alberta in 1914, but it didn't become a significant industry in the province until the 1960s when huge reserves of it were discovered. Calgary quickly found itself at the centre of the ensuing oil boom. The city's economy grew when oil prices increased with the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973. The population grew from 325,000 in 1974 to 647,000 in 1987. During this time, Calgary skyscrapers were constructed at a pace seen by few cities anywhere. The relatively low-rise downtown quickly became dense with tall buildings; a trend that continues to this day.
With the announcement of the National Energy Program in 1981 the oil boom started to subside. The NEP was cancelled in the mid-1980s by the Brian Mulroney federal government. Ultimately, oil prices would plummet and Calgary's economy would suffer.
With the energy sector employing a huge number of Calgarians, the fallout from the economic slump of the early 1980s was understandably significant. The unemployment rate soared. By the end of the decade, however, the economy was in recovery. Calgary quickly realized that it could not afford to put so much emphasis on oil and gas, and the city has since become much more diverse, both economically and culturally. The period during this recession marked Calgary's transition from a mid-sized and relatively nondescript prairie city into a major cosmopolitan and diverse centre. This transition culminated in February of 1988, when the city hosted the XV Olympic Winter Games. The success of these games essentially put the city on the world stage.
The economy in Calgary and Alberta is now booming, and the city of over a million people is still among the fastest growing in the country. In fact, Calgary is now second only to Toronto for its concentration of corporate head offices. While the oil and gas industry and agriculture still comprise a huge part of the economy, the city has invested a great deal into other areas. Tourism is perhaps one of the fastest growing industries in the city. Over 4.5 million people now visit the city on an annual basis for its many festivals and attractions, as well as the Calgary Stampede. The nearby mountain resort towns of Banff, Lake Louise, and Canmore are also becoming increasingly popular with tourists, and are bringing people into Calgary as a result. Other modern industries include light manufacturing, high-tech, film, transportation, and services.
Although Calgary's winters can be downright cold, Environment Canada still ranks the city as having the 3rd most temperate climate in the country after Victoria and Vancouver. This is due in large part to the dry Chinook winds that routinely blow into the city from the Pacific Ocean during the winter months. These winds have been known to raise the winter temperature by up to 20°C and may last several days. Nevertheless, Calgary is a city of extremes, and temperatures can range anywhere from as low as −35°C in the dead of winter to over +30°C in the summer. On average the temperature ranges from a minimum −15°C in January to a maximum of 23°C in July and August. With an average relative humidity of 65% in the winter, Calgary is a dry city and receives very little rain or snow relative to other Canadian cities. Despite this, blizzards in the winter and thunder and hail storms in the summer are not uncommon.
Layout and geography
Calgary is located within the foothills of the Rocky Mountains and is relatively hilly as a result. Calgary's elevation is approximately 1000 metres (3,200 feet) above sea level downtown, and 1084 metres (3,557 feet) at the airport. There are two major rivers that run through the city. The Bow River is the largest and flows from the west to the south. The Elbow River flows northwards from the south until it converges with the Bow River near downtown. Since the climate of the region is generally dry, dense vegetation only occurs naturally in the river valleys and within Fish Creek Provincial Park, the largest Urban Park within Canada.
The city is quite large in physical area, consisting of an inner city surrounded by various communities of decreasing density. Unlike most cities with a sizable metropolitan area, most of Calgary's suburbs are incorporated into the city proper, with the notable exceptions of the city of Airdrie to the north, Cochrane to the northwest, Strathmore to the east, and the sprawling Springbank district to the west. Calgary's "urban footprint" is slightly smaller than that of New York City.
The downtown region of the city consists of eight districts: the Eau Claire and Festival District, the West End, the Stephen Avenue Retail Core, the Commercial Core, the Arts District, the Government District, Chinatown, and the East Village. This is surrounded by inner-city areas such as the Beltline, Crescent Heights, Kensington, Bridgeland and Inglewood-Ramsay. The inner city is, in turn, surrounded by relatively dense and established neighbourhoods such as Rosedale and Mount Pleasant to the north, Bowness and Westgate to the west, Park Hill and Killarney to the south, and Forest Lawn to the east. Lying beyond these, and usually separated from one another by freeways, are the suburban neighbourhoods, often characterized as "commuter communities". Many areas of the city are separated from the rest and have adopted their own distinct characteristics. In all, there are over 180 distinct neighbourhoods within the city limits.
Because of the growth of the city, its southwest borders are now immediately adjacent to the Tsuu T’ina (Sarsi) Nation Native Indian reserve.
Calgary's downtown can easily be characterized by its numerous skyscrapers (including the tallest office tower in Canada outside of Toronto). To connect many of the downtown office buildings, the city also boasts the world's most extensive network of elevated indoor pedestrian bridges (known as the +15 system because the bridges are usually 15 feet above grade). The city's downtown also features an eclectic mix of restaurants and bars, cultural venues, shopping (most notably, TD Square, Stephen Avenue, and 17th Avenue), and public squares such as Olympic Plaza. Downtown tourist attractions include the Calgary Zoo, the Calgary Science Centre, the Telus Convention Centre, the Chinatown district, the Glenbow Museum and Art Gallery (the largest museum in western Canada), the Calgary Tower, the EPCOR Centre for the Performing Arts, and Eau Claire Market. At 2.5 acres, the Devonian Gardens is one of the largest urban indoor gardens in the world, and it is located on the 4th floor of TD Square (above the shopping). Downtown is also home to Prince's Island Park, an urban park located just north of the Eau Claire district. Downtown Calgary is easily accessed using the city's C-Train rapid transit system.
On the west side of the city, on the banks of the Glenmore Reservoir, is Heritage Park Historical Village. The theme park is a re-creation of a historic Alberta town. Highlights include a working steam train, a historic Calgary streetcar, and an antique midway. The village is comprised of historic buildings relocated from Southern Alberta towns, or in many cases, replicas of these buildings. Other major city attractions include Canada Olympic Park (and the Canadian Olympic Hall of Fame), the Aero Space Museum, Calaway Park amusement park, and Race City Motorsport Park.
- Canada Olympic Park and the Canadian Olympic Hall of Fame
- The Pengrowth Saddledome
- The Calgary Tower
- City Hall and Olympic Plaza
- The Stampede Grounds
- Fort Calgary Historic Site
- Spruce Meadows (A world-famous equestrian show jumping facility)
- The Calgary Zoo
Calgary's cultural scene has changed considerably since the city has grown. Today, Calgary is a modern cosmopolitan city that still retains much of its traditional culture of hotel saloons, hockey and western music.
Calgary is the site of the Southern Alberta Jubilee Auditorium, a 4 million cubic foot (113,000 m3) performing arts, culture and community facility. The auditorium is one of two "twin" facilities in the province, the other located in Edmonton. The 2,700-seat auditorium was opened in 1957 and has been host to hundreds of Broadway musical, theatrical, stage and local productions. Annually, over 850,000 visitors frequent the performance space. The "Jubes" as they are known, are the resident home of the Alberta Ballet , the Calgary opera , the Kiwanis Music Festival , the Royal Conservatory of Music and the annual Canadian Legion Remembrance Day Ceremonies. The two auditoria are run by community-based non-profit societies and operate 365 days a year. Currently, the two auditoria are undergoing a $91 million renovation.
Calgary is also home to the internationally-renowned contemporary theatre company, One Yellow Rabbit. The company shares the massive EPCOR Centre for the Performing Arts with the Calgary Philharmonic Orchestra and two more established theatre companies, Theatre Calgary and Alberta Theatre Projects . Calgary was also the birthplace of the improvisational theatre games known as Theatresports. The Calgary International Film Festival is also held in the city annually.
Calgary is affectionately called the Nashville of the North, and took a large part in the country revival of the 1990s. Currently, some of the city's most popular bars trade on the image of cool country, playing contemporary country music to young twenty-somethings.
Calgary also holds many major annual festivals including, The Calgary Stampede, the Folk Music Festival, and the second largest Caribbean festival in the country (Carifest).
The StampedeCalgary Stampede, a large festival and rodeo every July. It is Canada's largest annual event and it features an internationally recognized rodeo competition, a midway, stage shows, agricultural competitions, chuckwagon races, First Nations exhibitions, and pancake breakfasts around the city, among other attractions. The event has an extensive history.
The Calgary Stampede was inaugurated in 1912 by Guy Weadick, an American trick roper. Weadick wanted to put on a world-class rodeo event and Wild West show that would bring the best cowboys from across the continent. The first Stampede was the richest rodeo competition in North America with prize money totaling $20,000. It drew more than 100,000 spectators. In 1923, the Stampede was combined with the Calgary Exhibition and the chuckwagon races were added. In 2004, the rodeo prize money was doubled to $1 million to put the Stampede on par with other major rodeos such as the National Finals Rodeo. In 2004, attendance at the 10-day rodeo and exhibition totaled 1,221,182. Attendance at the Stampede Parade, which takes place downtown on opening day is usually somewhere between 300,000 and 400,000. During Stampede Week, the city's residents dress in western attire, and nearly all businesses decorate their stores and offices western style. The Calgary Stampede is often called "The Greatest Outdoor Show on Earth".
Presently, Bryce Nimmo is the chairman of the Stampede Rodeo committee.
Other annual festivals
- Winter Festival (February)
- Rodeo Royal (March)
- International Children's Festival (May)
- Carifest (June)
- International Jazz Festival (June)
- Greek Festival (June)
- Folk Music Festival (July)
- Dragonboat Festival (August)
- Global Fest - One World Festival and International Fireworks Competition (August)
- Afrikadey! Festival (August)
- Festival on the Bow / Barbecue on the Bow (September)
- Artcity - Festival of Art, Design and Architecture (September)
- Calgary International Film Festival (September / October)
- Banff Festival of Mountain Films (October)
- Twelve Days of Christmas (December)
Calgary is traditionally a conservative city, dominated by traditional small-c social conservatives and more modern fiscal conservatives. As the city is a corporate power-centre, a high percentage of the workforce is employed in white-collar jobs. During the 1990s the city's mainstream political culture was dominated by the right-wing Reform Party of Canada federally, and the Alberta Progressive Conservatives provincially. The Reform Party was largely spawned at the University of Calgary, and party leaders of both the PCs and Reform have Calgary ridings.
However, as Calgary has grown, its politics have become diverse. One growing alternative movement was recently active during the 2000 World Petroleum Congress and the J26 G8 Protests. The largest protests in the city's recent history occurred in early 2003 in response to the War on Iraq, when 5,000 to 10,000 people from southern Alberta converged outside the U.S. Consulate General's office. The city has chapters of various activist organizations, as well as an Anti-Capitalist Convergence. Left-wing provincial and federal Liberals tend to distance themselves from the activist movement which also claims support from the left. The Green Party of Canada has also made inroads in Calgary, although they have never achieved more than five per cent of the popular vote in any city riding. Another alternative, represented by the right-wing Alberta Alliance, became active during the 26th Alberta general election and campaigned for fiscally and socially conservative reforms.
Prior to the November 22, 2004 general election, all 21 provincial MLAs representing Calgary were Progressive Conservatives. The Alberta Liberals won three seats in the provincial legislature during that election, two of which were new as a result of redistricting.
Calgary is the site of four major public post-secondary institutions. The University of Calgary is Calgary's primary large degree-granting facility. Currently, nearly 30,000 students are enrolled there. Mount Royal College is the city's second largest institution (13,000 students), and it grants degrees in a number of fields. The Southern Alberta Institute of Technology provides polytechnic education. The Alberta College of Art & Design is also located in Calgary. There are also a number of smaller private colleges in the city. Calgary is also home to DeVry Career College's only Canadian campus. Calgary is also the home of the Milton Wiliams School for Education Through the Arts, a national centre of excellence in arts immersion education for children between the fifth and ninth grades.
Sports and recreation1988 Winter Olympic Games. Many of the Olympic facilities continue to function as major high performance training facilities for athletes around the world. Among the most notable of these are Canada Olympic Park and the Olympic Oval.
Calgary's multipurpose arena, the Pengrowth Saddledome is shown at the right. The Olympic Saddledome (as it was formerly known) was the first modern arena in North America capable of accommodating an Olympic regulation-sized ice rink.
The Olympic Oval is primarily a speed-skating arena that can also accommodate hockey and high-performance training. The rink's ice is world-renowned, and it brings some of the best speed skaters in the world to the facility for training and competition. It was at this place where the likes of Catriona LeMay Doan and Cindy Klassen trained for their Olympic and world stardom.
Professional sports teams
- Calgary Drillers (Basketball/American Basketball Association)
- Calgary Flames (Hockey/National Hockey League)
- Calgary Roughnecks (Lacrosse/National Lacrosse League)
- Calgary Stampeders (Football/Canadian Football League)
- Calgary Vipers (Baseball/Northern League)
- Calgary Dawgs (Baseball/Western Major Baseball League)
- Calgary Hitmen (Hockey/Western Hockey League)
- Calgary Oval X-treme (Hockey/Western Womens Hockey League )
Calgary is next to some of the most pristine natural scenery in the world. Banff National Park is about 125 km northwest of Calgary on the Trans-Canada Highway. About 75 km west is Kananaskis Country.
Many Calgarians and millions of tourists enjoy activities such as biking, hiking, skiing, snowboarding, camping, and fishing in these great parks every year. The town of Banff hosts nearly five million visitors annually.
Within Calgary itself, people make extensive use of the city's network of bike paths and large urban parks. For more extreme adventure, Canada Olympic Park offers bobsledding, luge, cross-country skiing, ski jumping, downhill skiing, and snowboarding in the winter. The Bow River is very popular among fly-fishermen.
Major parks in Calgary and vicinity
- Fish Creek Provincial Park, Canada's only provincial park located within a major city
- Nose Hill Park
- Inglewood Bird Sanctuary
- Stanley Park
- Prince's Island Park
- Prairie Winds Park
- Kananaskis Country Provincial Park System, approximately 60 km to the west and southwest
- Banff National Park, approximately 130 km to the west, UNESCO World Heritage Site
- Jasper National Park, UNESCO World Heritage Site
- Yoho National Park, UNESCO World Heritage Site
- Kootenay National Park, UNESCO World Heritage Site
- Dinosaur Provincial Park, UNESCO World Heritage Site
- Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park
Calgary's mass transit system is operated by Calgary Transit. Known as the C-Train, the light rail transit (LRT) system in the city consists of 42.1 km of track and was one of the first such systems in North America. Unique to the C-Train system, its power is completely wind generated and is thus completely free of emissions. As well as the LRT, Calgary Transit has an effective system of buses, and has routes stretching all over the city. It has won several prestigious awards for its efficiency and its environmental responsibility. It serves approximately 922,300 people in Calgary and consists of over 160 bus routes and 3 C-Train lines spanning over 4,300 km.
Calgary International Airport serves the city as well as the international traffic for Alberta and Saskatchewan. In December 2004, it was the third busiest airport in Canada after Toronto's Pearson International Airport and the Vancouver International Airport. It is marginally busier than Montreal's Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport.
The City of Calgary also has an impressive network of paved bicycle paths. The path network in Calgary spans 400km of dedicated pathways and 200km of bike lanes. A PDF Map is available from the City of Calgary Website. Thousands of people make year-round use these paths for walking, running, and cycling to various destinations. Calgary's system of elevated walkways or skyways downtown (known as the Plus 15 system) is the most extensive in the world. These walkways not only serve to connect buildings, but also contain restaurants, shops, and services. The system is 16 kilometres long.
Finally, Calgary has an extensive, efficient, and well-maintained street network. Smaller roads are supplemented with a number of major arteries and freeways, the largest of which is the north-south running Deerfoot Trail (Highway 2). Other major freeways include Glenmore Trail, Macleod Trail, named for one of the city founders, Colonel James MacLeod, and Crowchild Trail, named for the 1800s Blackfoot leader Chief Crowchild .
Calgary is still home to a sizable military presence, including HMCS Tecumseh (Naval Reserve), the HMCS Tecumseh Band, and the 746th Communications Squadron (Communications Reserve). Several units of the Army Reserve are located in Calgary, including:
- Headquarters, 41 Canadian Brigade Group
- The King's Own Calgary Regiment (RCAC)
- Regimental Band of The King's Own Calgary Regiment (RCAC)
- 33 Field Engineer Squadron (Canadian Military Engineers )
- The Calgary Highlanders
- Regimental Pipes and Drums of The Calgary Highlanders
- 14 Service Battalion
- Calgary Detachment, 15 Field Ambulance (Canadian Forces Medical Service)
- Militia Training Detachment Calgary
- Calgary Herald - The largest newspaper in Calgary. Generally conservative, covers more worldly news than the Calgary Sun. Owned by CanWest Global Communications.
- Calgary Sun - A division of SUNMEDIA, a Quebecor company. Tabloid format, focus on local news, sports and entertainment.
- FFWD - Weekly alternative arts paper.
- Globe and Mail - Canada's "National Newspaper", tends to focus more on world news, business and arts coverage.
- National Post - Daily conservative national news paper owned by CanWest Global Communications.
- Dose - Free daily paper published by CanWest Global Communications.
- 660 - CFFR - oldies
- 770 - CHQR - talk radio
- 910 - CKDQ - country music, broadcasting from Drumheller
- 960 - CFAC - "The Fan" sports
- 1010 - CBR - CBC Radio One
- 1060 - CKMX - oldies
- 1140 - CHRB - religious programming, broadcasting from High River
- 88.1 - C??? - Aboriginal Voices
- 88.9 - CJSI - Shine FM Christian music
- 89.7 - CBCX - Espace Musique
- 90.9 - CJSW - University of Calgary
- 91.1 - CKDQ - Q91 country, broadcasting from Drumheller
- 92.1 - CJAY - rock, alternative, and classic rock
- 93.7 - CKUA - public broadcasting
- 94.7 - CHKF - Asian Canadian community
- 95.9 - CHFM - Lite 96 adult contemporary
- 96.9 - CKIS - Jack FM hot adult contemporary
- 98.5 - CIBK - Vibe 98.5 urban music
- 100.9 - CFXL - The Eagle classic rock, broadcasting out of Okotoks
- 102.1 - CBR-FM - CBC Radio Two
- 103.1 - CIQX - The Breeze easy listening/jazz
- 103.9 - CBRF - La Première Chaîne
- 105.1 - CKRY - Country 105
- 107.3 - CFGQ - Q-107 classic rock
- List of mayors of Calgary, Alberta
- List of the 100 largest cities in Canada
- List of the 100 largest metropolitan areas in Canada
- 1988 Winter Olympics
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