Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
The Republic of Cameroon is a unitary republic of central Africa. It borders Nigeria, Chad, Central African Republic, Republic of Congo, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea and the Gulf of Guinea. The former French Cameroon and part of British Cameroons merged in 1961 to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon which in 1972 was renamed the United Republic of Cameroon; since 1984 the country is known as the Republic of Cameroon or République du Cameroun (its official languages are English and French). Cameroon has generally enjoyed stability, which has permitted the development of agriculture, roads, and railways, as well as a petroleum industry. Despite movement toward democratic reform, political power remains firmly in the hands of an ethnic oligarchy. The capital is Yaoundé.
| National motto: Paix, Travail, Patrie|
(French: Peace, Work, Fatherland)
|Official languages||French and English|
|Prime Minister||Ephraïm Inoni|
- % water
| Ranked 52nd |
|Population|| Ranked 60th
| From France|
January 1, 1960
|Currency||CFA franc (XAF)|
|National anthem||Chant de Ralliement|
Main article: History of Cameroon
The first inhabitants of Cameroon were the pygmy Baka tribes. The Bantu language originated in the highlands of Cameroon, but many of its speakers moved out before foreign invaders came into the nation.
The first European contact was in the 1500s with the Portuguese, but they did not stay. The first permanent settlements were started in the late 1870s, with Germany emerging as the major European Power. After World War I though, the country would be split by Britain and France.
In 1961 the French and British portions of Cameroon were united, the French portion having gained independence a year earlier. The new coalition government was led by Ahmadou Ahidjo who led a crack down on rebel groups who had remained since before independence.
Ahidjo stepped down in 1982 and was succeeded by the current president, Paul Biya. Biya has won numerous elections, but the fairness of these elections has been questioned. The last elections were held on October 11, 2004.
Main article: Politics of Cameroon
The President of Cameroon holds executive power in the government of Cameroon. This provision was part of the reforms instituted in 1996 to the Constitution , that had been originally written in 1972. The President is given a broad range of powers, and is able to carry them out without consulting the National Assembly .
The National Assembly consists of 180 delegates and meets three times a year. The main responsibility of the Assembly is to pass laws, but rarely has it changed any laws or blocked the passage of legislation.
The judiciary is subordinate to the executive branch's Ministry of Justice. The Supreme Court may review the constitutionality of a law only at the president's request.
Main article: Provinces of Cameroon
Cameroon is divided into 10 provinces:
- Adamawa Province (Adamaoua)
- Centre Province
- East Province (Est)
- Extreme North Province (Extreme-Nord)
- Littoral Province
- North Province (Nord)
- Northwest Province (Nord-Ouest)
- West Province (Ouest)
- South Province (Sud)
- Southwest Province (Sud-Ouest)
Main article: Geography of Cameroon
Main article: Economy of Cameroon
Main article: Demographics of Cameroon
Main article: Culture of Cameroon
|January 1||New Year's Day|
|February 11||National Youth Day|
|May 1||Labor Day|
|May 20||National Day|
Main article: Education in Cameroon
- Communications in Cameroon
- Transportation in Cameroon
- Military of Cameroon
- Foreign relations of Cameroon
- Catholic Church in Cameroon
- List of cities in Cameroon
- List of Cameroon-related topics
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