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This article is about the land called Canaan. For other meanings see Canaan (disambiguation).
Canaan or Kná'an (כְּנַעַן / כְּנָעַן, Standard Hebrew Kənáʿan, Tiberian Hebrew Kənáʿan / Kənāʿan; Septuagint Greek Χανααν, Khanaan) is an ancient term for a region roughly corresponding to present-day Israel, the West Bank, western Jordan, southern Syria and southern Lebanon. The Canaanite town Ugarit was rediscovered in 1928 and much of our modern knowledge about the Canaanites stems from excavation in this area.
Canaan before the time of the Hebrews
The name is of obscure origins but is extremely ancient, the first known references having appeared in the 3rd millennium BC. In the 18th century BC it is mentioned in a document found in the ruins of the Sumerian city of Mari, apparently existing as a distinct political entity (probably a loose confederation of city-states). During the 2nd millennium BC the name was used for a province of the Egyptian empire which is described as having been bounded to the west by the Mediterranean Sea, to the north by the Pass of Hamath in southern Lebanon, to the east by the Jordan valley and to the south by a line from the Dead Sea to the Gaza area. This corresponds closely to the description of the region given in the Hebrew Bible, in Numbers 34.1–12.
At the end of what is referred to as the Middle Kingdom era of Egypt, and the event that actually ended the Middle Kingdom, was a massive Canaanite invasion of Egypt. The Canaanite invaders, whom the Egyptians referred to as the "Hyksos", conquered Lower (northern) Egypt, leaving Canaan evidently an ethnically diverse land before the return of the Hebrews; its inhabitants, the Canaanites or Kna'anim (כנענים, Standard Hebrew Kənaʿani, Tiberian Hebrew Kənaʿanî) are said in Deuteronomy 7.1 to have been one of seven nations driven out before the Israelites. Other passages describe regional ethnic divisions, of which the Canaanites were the coastal component. The term "Canaanites" in this context corresponds exactly to "Phoenicians".
In the Armarna tablets of the 14th century BC they call themselves "Kinahhi" or "Kinahni" (Canaanites); and even much later in the 6th century BC, Hecataeus writes that Phoenicia was formerly called χνα, a name which Philo of Byblos later adopted into his mythology as his eponym for the Phoenicians: "Khna who was afterwards called Phoinix".
Tablets found in the Mesopotamian city of Nuzi use the term "Kinahnu" (translated as "Canaan") as a synonym for red or purple dye, apparently a renowned Canaanite export commodity. This is another possible link to the Phoenicians, whose Tyrian purple was well-known. The dyes were most probably named after their place of origin (much as "champagne" is both a product and the name of the region in which it is produced).
Having acquired a reputation as traders across a wide area of the Near East, there are occasional instances in the Hebrew Bible in which "Canaanite" is used as a synonym for "merchant", presumably indicating the aspect of Canaanites with which the anonymous author was most familiar.
In linguistic terms, Canaanite refers to the common ancestor of closely related Semitic languages such as Hebrew, and Ugaritic, and was the first language to use a Semitic alphabet, from which the others derived their scripts; see Canaanite languages.
In the Pentateuch, Canaan, Cush, Put and Mizraim were grouped together as "sons of Ham". The Canaanites are initially identified as divided into eleven tribes or areas: Sidon; Heth; Jebusites; Amorites; Girgasites ; Hivites; Arkites ; Sinites ; Arvadites ; Zemarites ; Hamathites .
Ham discovered Noah "undressed naked" while Noah was sleeping off some wine (Genesis 9:22). To "undress" a sibling's or parent's or grandparent's "nakedness" is a biblical term for committing a sexual act with a sibling's spouse, or with a parent's spouse/children/grandchildren, or with a parent's sibling or their spouse respectively (see Leviticus 18). It was Noah's youngest "son" (grandchildren being included under this title in Biblical Hebrew) Canaan who was directly connected to this event, since as a result it was he and not Ham who was cursed to go into servitude even to his Hamite brethren as well as his Shemite & Japhethic cousins by his grandfather Noah (Genesis 9:25).
As a result of their eponymous ancestor's crime the Bible indicates that Canaanites in Israel's eyes were seen as an increasingly sexually very depraved people (Leviticus 18:27). Thus the land of the Canaanites (specifically the Amorites, Hivites, Hethites, Girgashites and Jebusites) was deemed suitable for conquest by the Israelites on moral grounds. To this day, based upon Deut. 20:16-17, it remains one of the fundamental 613 Jewish Commandments not to keep alive any individual of the Canaanite nations specified in the Torah.
The following is a much longer discussion based on an article from a 1911 encyclopedia, but it badly needs updating with modern research results.
Canaan (also Canaanites) are geographical and ethnic terms that have a shifting reference, which doubtless arises out of the migrations of the tribes to which the term "Canaanites" belongs. In the Bible Canaanite populations are said to inhabit:
- the coast of the Mediterranean Sea Josh. 5:1
- the Jordan Valley Josh. 11:3, Num. 13:29 (cf. also Gen. 13:12)
- west Mediterranian coast territories occupied by Phoenicia Isa. 23:11
- parts of greater Philistia (however, the text is disputed) Zeph. 2:5
Most often it is applied comprehensively to the population of the entire west Jordan River land and its pre-Israelitish inhabitants. This usage is characteristic of the writer called the Yahwist (J); see e.g. Gen. 12:5, 33:18; Ex. 15:15; Num. 33:51; Josh. 22:9; Judg. 3:1; Ps. 106:38, and elsewhere.
Augustine tells us, that one of the usages the Phoenicians termed their territories was "Canaan." This is confirmed by coins of the city of Laodicea by the Lebanon, which bear the legend, "Of Laodicea, a metropolis in Canaan"; these coins are dated under Antiochus IV (175 - 164 BC), and his successors — Greek writers, too — tell us that the original name of Phoenicia was Kèna, a short, collateral form of Kena?an or Kan?an. Augustine mentions that the country people near Hippo, presumably Punic in origin, still called themselves Chanani.
The form Kan?an is favoured by the Egyptian usage. Seti I is said to have conquered the Shasu, or Arabian nomads, from the fortress of Taru (Shtir?) to "the Ka-n-?-na," and Rameses III to have built a temple to the god Amen in "the Ka-n-?-na." By this geographical name is probably meant all western Syria and Palestine with Raphia--"the (first) city of the Ka-n-?-na"--for the south-west boundary towards the desert. In the letters sent by governors and princes of Palestine to their Egyptian overlord - commonly known as the Tel-el-Amarna tablets - we find the two forms Kinal7l7i and Kinabna, corresponding to Kena? and Kena?an respectively, and standing, as Ed. Meyer has shown, for Syria in its widest extent. The letters are written in the official and diplomatic language Babylonian, though "Canaanitish" words and idioms are not wanting.
One archeologist believes that Egyptian records of the 13th century BC are the earliest written reports of a monotheistic belief in the God called Yahweh, first noted among the nomadic Shasu tribe, just south and east of the Dead Sea. (See pages 128 and 236 of the book "Who Were the Early Israelites?" by archeologist William G. Dever, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, MI, 2003.) Evidently belief in Yahweh displaced previous polytheistic beliefs among the early Hebrews, during and after the reign of King Josiah (around 650 BC), according to that book, and also according to archeologists Neil A. Silberman and colleagues, in "The Bible Unearthed," Simon and Schuster, New York, 2001.
On the name "Canaan" Winckler remarks, "There is at present no prospect of an etymological explanation." From the fact that Egyptian (though not Hebrew) scribes constantly prefix the article, we may suppose that it originally meant "the country of the Canaanites," just as the Hebrew phrase "the Lebanon" may originally have meant "the highlands of the Libnites"; and we are thus permitted to group the term "Canaan" with clan-names such as Achan, Akan, Jaakan, Anak (generally with the article prefixed), Kain, Kenan. Nor are scholars more unanimous with regard to the region where the terms "Canaanite" and "Canaan" arose. It may be true that the term Kinabbi in the Amarna letters corresponds to Syria and Palestine in their entirety. But this does not prove that the terms "Canaanite" and "Canaan" arose in that region, for they are presumably much older than the Amarna tablets.
The Table of Nations
In the so-called Table of Peoples in the tenth chapter of Genesis, "Canaan" is included among the four sons of Ham. Typically it is taken that Cush in 10:6 really means Ethiopia, Mizraim Egypt, and Put a Libyan tribe, and if Ham is really a Hebraized form of the old Egyptian name for Egypt, Kam-t (black). But if, as suggested in the early 20th century, Cush, Mizarim, and Put are in north Arabia, and }Jati~ is the short for Yarham or Yerahme?el (see 1 Chr. 2:25-27, 42), a north Arabian name intimately associated with Caleb, all becomes clear, and Canaan in particular is shown to be an Arabian name.
One hypothesis is that beginning from about 4000 BC a wave of Afroasiatic migration poured out of Arabia, and flooded Babylonia certainly, and possibly, more or less, Syria and Palestine also. Also that between 2800 and 2600 BC a second wave from Arabia took the same course, covering not only Babylonia, but also Syria and Palestine and probably also Egypt (the Hyksos). It is soon after this that we meet with the great empire-builder and civilizer, Hammurabi (2267 - 2213 BC), the first king of a united Babylonia. In the same way that the first part of his name may be said to be identical with the name of the father of Canaan in Genesis (Ham or Kham), indicating his Arabian origin it is also reminiscent of the Ammur. It was he, too, who restored the ancient supremacy of Babylonia over Syria and Palestine, and so prevented the Babylonizing of these countries from coming to an abrupt end.
We now understand how the Phoenicians, whose ancestors arrived in the second Semitic migration, came to call their land "Canaan." They had in fact the best right to do so. The first of the Canaanite immigrants were driven seawards by the masses which followed them. They settled in Phoenicia, and in after times became so great in commerce that "Canaanite" became a common Hebrew term for "merchant" (e.g. Isa. 23:8). It is a plausible theory that in the conventional language of their Inscriptions they preserved a number of geographical and religious phrases which, for them, had no dear meaning, and belonged properly to the land of their distant ancestors, Arabia. The masses of immigrants which followed them may have borne the name of Amorites. A few words on this designation must here be given. Both within and without Palestine the name was famous.
First, as regards the Old Testament, we find "the Amorite" (a collective term) mentioned in the Table of Peoples (Gen. 10:16-18a) among other tribal names, the exact-original reference of which had probably been forgotten. No one ill fact would gather from this and parallel passages how important a part was played by the Amorites in the early history of Palestine. In Gen. 14:7 f, Josh. 10:5f., Deut. 1:19 if., 27, 44 we find them located in the southern mountain country, while in Num. 21:13, 2ff., Josh. ii.xo, 9:10, 24:8, 12, etc., we hear of two great Amorite kings, residing respectively at Heshbon and Ashtaroth on the east of the Jordan. Quite different, however, is the view taken in Gen. 15:16, 48:22, Josh.24:15, Judg. 1:34, Am.n.9, 10, etc., where the name of Amorite is synonymous with "Canaanite," except that "Amorite" is never used for the population on the coast. Next, as to the extra-Biblical evidence. In the Egyptian inscriptions and in the Amarna tablets Amar and Amurru have limited meaning, being applied to the mountain-region east of Phoenicia, extending to the Orontes. Later on, Amurru became the Assyrian term for the interior of south as well as north Palestine, and at a still more recent period the term "the land of Hatti" (conventionally = Hittites) displaced Amurru so far as north Palestine is concerned.
Thus the Phoenicians and the Amorites belong to the first stage of the second great Arabian migration. In the interval preceding the second stage Syria with Palestine became an Egyptian dependency, though the links with the sovereign power were not so strong as to prevent frequent local rebellions. Under Thutmose III and Amenhotep II the pressure of a strong hand kept the Syrians and Canaanites sufficiently loyal to the Pharaohs. The reign of Amenhotep III, however, was not quite so tranquil for the Asiatic province. Turbulent chiefs began to seek their opportunities, though as a rule they did not find them because they could not obtain the help of a neighboring king. The boldest of the disaffected was Aziru, son of Abd ashirta, a prince of Amurru, who even before the death of Amenhotep III endeavoured to extend his power into the plain of Damascus. Akizzi, governor of Katna (near Horns or Hamath), reported this to the Pharaoh who seems to have frustrated the attempt. In the next reign, however, both father and son caused infinite trouble to loyal servants of Egypt like Rib-Addi, governor of Gubla (Gebal).
It was, first, the advance of the Hatti (Hittites) into Syria, which began in the time of Amenhotep III, but became far more threatening in that of his successor, and next, the resumption of the second Arabian migration, which most seriously undermined the Egyptian power in Asia. Of the former we cannot speak here, except so far as to remark the Abd-Ashirta. and his son Aziru, though at first afraid of the Hatti, was afterwards clever enough to make a treaty with their king, and, with other external powers, to attack the districts which remained loyal to Egypt. In vain did Rib-Addi send touching appeals for aid to the distant Pharaoh, who was far too much engaged in his religious innovations to attend to such messages. What most interests us is the mention of troublesome invaders called sometimes sa-gas (a Babylonian ideogram meaning "robber"), sometimes Habiri. Who are these Habiri? Not, as was at first thought by some, specially the Israelites, but all those tribes of land-hungry nomads ("Hebrews") who were attracted by the wealth and luxury of the settled regions, and sought to appropriate it for themselves. Among these we may include not only the Israelites or tribes which afterwards became Israelitish, but the Moabites, Ammonites and Edomites.
We meet with the Habiri in north Syria. Itakkama writes thus to the Pharaoh, "Behold, Namyawaza has surrendered all the cities of the king, my lord to the SA-GAS in the land of Kadesh and in Ubi. But I will go, and if thy gods and thy sun go before me, I will bring back, the cities to the king, my lord, from the Habiri, to show myself subject to him; and I will expel the SA-GAS." Similarly Zimrida, king of Sidon, declares, "All my cities which the king has given into my hand, have come into the hand of the habiri." Nor had Palestine any immunity from the Arabian invaders. The king of Jerusalem, Abd-~iba, the second part of whose name has been thought to represent the Hebrew Yahweh, reports this to the Pharaoh, "If (Egyptian) troops come this year, lands and princes will remain to the king, my lord; but if troops come not, these lands and princes will not remain to the king, my lord." Abd-~iba's chief trouble arose from persons called Iilkili and the sons of Lapaya, who are said to have entered into a treasonable league with the Ijabiri. Apparently this restless warrior found his death at the siege of Gina. All these princes, however, malign each other in their letters to the Pharaoh, and protest their own innocence of traitorous intentions. Namyawaza, for instance, whom Itakkama (see above) accuses of disloyalty, writes thus to the Pharaoh, "Behold, I and my warriors and my chariots, together with my brethren and my SA-GAS, and my Suti ?9 are at the disposal of the (royal) troops to go whithersoever the king, my lord, commands." This petty prince, therefore, sees no harm in having a band of Arabians for his garrison, as indeed Hezekiah long afterwards had his Turbi to help him against Sennacherib.
From the same period we have recently derived fresh and important evidence as to pre-Israelitish Palestine. As soon as the material gathered is large enough to be thoroughly classified and critically examined, a true history of early Palestine will be within measurable distance. At present, there are five places whence the new evidence has been obtained: at Tell-el-Hasy, eventually identified with the Lachish of the Old Testament. Excavations were made here in 1890-1892 by Flinders Petrie and Bliss,- 2. Gezer, plausibly identified with the Gezer of I Kings x. 16. Here RAS Macalister began excavating in 1902.
- Jonathan N. Tubb , Canaanites, Norman (Oklahoma) 1998. ISBN 080613108X
- this article needs updating with modern research results.
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