Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Canadian federal election, 1993
The Canadian federal election of 1993 was held on October 25th, 1993 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. It was one of the most eventful in Canadian history. While Canada's traditional ruling party, the Liberal Party, was returned to power, the equally old Progressive Conservative Party was all but annihilated. The election also saw the rise of two new parties: the Bloc Québécois, which became the Official Opposition, and the Reform Party, which also won many seats.
The election was called by Progressive Conservative leader Kim Campbell, who had been Prime Minister for only a few months. She had replaced Brian Mulroney, who was considered one of the most unpopular Prime Ministers in Canadian history because of his failed constitutional reforms and the poor state of the Canadian economy. While she was expected to lose the election, she was forced to call one as the Tories' five-year mandate had almost expired.
More uncertain was how the opposition parties would be divided. Two new parties were fighting in this election. The West produced the Reform Party, a right-wing populist party led by Preston Manning. In Quebec, the Bloc Québécois, a Quebec separatist party, rose to the fore under the leadership of ex-Tory cabinet minister Lucien Bouchard. Both parties did very well in the election. Reform swept Alberta, won much of British Columbia, and many seats in Saskatchewan and Manitoba. The Bloc dominated Quebec, winning enough seats to form the Official Opposition as the second-largest party in Parliament.
Two older parties did not fare so well. The governing Tories were devastated. A poorly-run campaign only exacerbated their problems. Most memorable was an advertisement that attacked Chrétien's paralysed face, which offended many Canadians as a perceived cheap shot against a person's physical disability. The Tories were reduced to two seats, their worst showing ever. Kim Campbell, who lost her own Vancouver riding, resigned as leader of the party after the fiasco. Although the party won the third largest number of votes, only barely behind the Reform Party and far higher than the Bloc Québécois, their vote was spread out over a wide area, resulting in victories in only two ridings: New Brunswick's Elsie Wayne and Quebec's Jean Charest were elected as the only PC Members of Parliament.
The other national party, the New Democratic Party, also did poorly, falling to nine seats, losing ground in the West to Reform and in Ontario to the Liberals.
Former Progressive Conservative MP Gilles Bernier was re-elected as an independent candidate in Beauce riding in Quebec.
Fourteen registered political parties contested the election, a Canadian record.
The Liberals won all but one riding in Ontario, and significant support in the Maritimes and on the Prairies. They also won a fair number of seats in Quebec and British Columbia. This gave them a substantial majority in parliament.
For a complete list of MPs elected in the 1993 election see 35th Canadian parliament.
|Party||Party Leader||# of|
|Before1||After||% Change||#||%||% Change||Liberal||Jean Chrétien||295||79||177||+121.5%||5,647,952||41.24%||+9.32%||Bloc Québécois||Lucien Bouchard||75||8||54||+575%||1,846,024||13.52%||n.a.||Reform||Preston Manning||207||1||52||+5100%||2,559,245||18.69%||+16.59%||New Democratic||Audrey McLaughlin||294||43||9||-79%||939,575||6.88%||-13.50%||Progressive Conservative||Kim Campbell||295||151||2||-99%||2,186,422||16.04%||-26.97%||National||Mel Hurtig||170||-||-||187,251||1.38%||n.a.||Natural Law||Neil Paterson||231||-||-||84,743||0.63%||n.a.||Green||Chris Lea||79||-||-||32,690||0.24%||-0.12%||Christian Heritage||Heather Stilwell||59||-||-||30,455||0.22%||-0.55%||Libertarian||Hilliard Cox||52||-||-||14,630||0.11%||-0.14%||Abolitionist||John C. Turmel||80||-||-||9,141||0.07%||n.a.||Canada Party||Joseph Thauberger||56||-||-||7,506||0.06%||n.a.||Commonwealth||Gilles Gervais||59||-||-||7,316||0.06%||-||Marxist-Leninist||Hardial Bains||51||-||-||5,136||0.04%||+0.04%||Independent||129||3||1||60,434||0.73%|
1 "Before" refers to standings in the House of Commons at dissolution, and not to standings at previous election.
n.a. = not applicable - the party was not recognized in the previous election.
Results by province
|Parties that won no seats:|
Source: Elections Canada
- Number of Parties: 14
- First appearance: Bloc Québécois, Natural Law Party of Canada
- Reappearance after hiatus: Marxist-Leninist Party of Canada
- Final appearance: Party for the Commonwealth of Canada
- Final appearance before hiatus: Libertarian Party of Canada (returned in 2004)
- First-and-only appearance: Abolitionist Party of Canada, National Party of Canada, Canada Party
- 1993 was one of only two elections in Canadian history (the other was 1997) where the official Opposition did not have the majority of the opposition's seats. 54 seats for the Bloc Quebecois, compared to 64 seats for the other opposition parties and indepedents combined.
10 closest ridings
1. Edmonton Northwest, AB: Anne McLellan (Lib) def. Richard Kayler (Ref) by 12 votes
2. Bourassa, QC: Osvaldo Nunez (BQ) def. Denis Coderre (Lib) by 67 votes
3. Edmonton North, AB: John Loney (Lib) def. Ron Mix (Ref) by 83 votes
4. Simcoe Centre , ON: Ed Harper (Ref) def. Janice Laking (Lib) by 123 votes
5. Edmonton East , AB: Judy Bethel (Lib) def. Linda Robertson (Ref) by 203 votes
6. Winnipeg Transcona , MB: Bill Blaikie (NDP) def. Art Miki (Lib) by 219 votes
7. Moose Jaw—Lake Centre , SK: Allan Kerpan (Ref) def. Rod Laporte (NDP) by 310 votes
8. Edmonton—Strathcona, AB: Hugh Hanrahan (Ref) def. Chris Peirce (Lib) by 418 votes
9. La Prairie, QC: Richard Bélisle (BQ) def. Jacques Saada (Lib) by 476 votes
10. Souris—Moose Mountain , SK: Bernie Collins (Lib) def. Doug Heimlick (Ref) by 499 votes
10. Verdun—Saint-Paul , QC: Raymonde Lavigne (Lib) def. Kim Beadoin (BQ) by 499 votes
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