Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
The Cannon River flows from Tetonka Lake near Waterville to Red Wing in the U.S. state of Minnesota, where it joins the Mississippi River. It drains a watershed approximately 1460 square miles (3,780 km²) in size.
The Cannon River has few rapids, and none are difficult (Class I). Canoes traversing the river must portage several dams. Downed trees and logjams are hazards in high water. The river varies in width from 50 to 200 feet (15 to 60 m).
Stream flow usually peaks in early April. Very heavy rains can cause the river to flood. Because there are few rapids to cause canoeists problems in low water, the level is usually sufficient for canoeing. The dam at Lake Byllesby, affects water levels and canoeing downstream. From Faribault, Minnesota to its mouth, the Cannon falls 280 feet (85 m), an average of 4.8 feet/mile (1 m/km).
Bounded by rolling hills, bluffs, farmland, and woods in its upper reaches, the Cannon enters a broad gorge below Cannon Falls, where it is flanked by bluffs up to 300 feet (100 m) high. The Cannon River is underlaid with a variety of sedimentary rocks. The river valley created by cutting through these rocks produced rock outcrops of St. Peter Sandstone, the Prairie du Chein Group of dolomites and sandstone, and near the river's mouth, Jordan Sandstone and the St. Lawrence and Franconia formations.
Fish and wildlife
In the reservoirs and slow stretches above Faribault the most common game fish are northern pike, black crappies, bluegills,and bullheads. Downstream from Faribault the most common species are smallmouth bass, northern pike, walleye, and, in the stretch below Cannon Falls, Minnesota, channel catfish. Wildlife seen in the river valley includes white-tailed deer, beavers, otters, raccoons, bobcats, red fox, gray fox, and coyotes. Bald eagles are sighted near the Mississippi River.
By C.E. 1000 the Mississippian Culture, a tradition heavily dependent on agriculture, was established in southern Minnesota. The mouth of the Cannon River was a major center of this culture. In historic times Indians and traders frequently hid their canoes near the river's mouth, and so French fur traders called the stream La Riviere aux Canots, "the river of canoes." In 1877 there were 15 flour mills along the stretch of river between Faribault and Northfield alone. At Dundas, Minnesota travelers still can see the aging limestone walls of the Archbald Mill.
Adapted from the Minnesota DNR web site
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