Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Canton of Bern
The Swiss canton of Bern (German: Kanton Bern; French Canton de Berne) has a population of about 947,000. It is located in west- central Switzerland and the city of Bern is its capital. People speak a local Swiss German dialect called Bärndüütsch and French in the City of Biel/Bienne and in Bernese Jura area (Jura Bernois) in the north of Canton.
|Canton of Bern|
The canton of Bern is the second largest of all Swiss cantons. It borders the Canton of Jura and the Canton of Solothurn to the north. To the west lie the Canton of Neuchâtel, the Canton of Fribourg and Vaud, to the south lies the Valais. East of the canton of Bern lie the cantons of Uri, Nidwalden, Obwalden, Lucerne and Aargau.
The canton of Bern is mainly drained by the River Aare and its tributaries. The area of the canton is commonly divided into three areas. The Bernese Highlands (Berner Oberland) lie in the south of the canton and are part of the Alps. The highest elevation in the Bernese Highlands is the Finsteraarhorn with 4274 m. The famous resorts around Interlaken and the Jungfrau (4158 m) are located within this area. Other resorts in the Bernese Highlands are Thun, Meiringen and Aareschlucht , Grindelwald, Mürren and Kandersteg. The whole area is very mountainous and renowned for its scenic beauty. As a result of this tourism is one of the main sources of income in the Bernese Highlands.
Mountains in Bern:
- Eiger (Canton of Bern)
The Bernese Midlands (Berner Mittelland) is made up of the valley of the rivers Aare, the river Emme, some of the foothills of the Bernese Alps, as well as the plain around the capital Bern. In the north of the canton of Bern lies the third region: the Lake Region (Seenland) concentrated around Lake Biel.
The area of the canton is 5959 km².
The area of the canton of Bern consists of lands acquired by its capital, mostly between the 14th and the 16th century, both by conquest and purchase. Acquired districts include (with dates of acquisition):
- Laupen (1324)
- Hash and Meiringen (1334)
- Thun and Burgdorf (1384)
- Unterseen and the Upper Simme valley (1386)
- Frutigen, etc. (1400)
- Lower Simme valley (1439 - 1449)
- Interlaken, with Grindelwald, Lauterbrunnen and Brienz (1528, all the suppression of the Austin Canons of Interlaken)
- Saanen or Gessenay (1555)
Some regions previously won left the canton in 1798: Aargau (1415), Aigle and Grandson (1475), Vaud (1536), and the Pays d'En-Haut including Chateau d'Oex (1555). From 1798 to 1802 the Oberland formed a separate canton of the Helvetic Republic called canton of Thun with Thun as its capital. Certain French-speaking portions of the canton of Bern broke away from the canton only in the late 20th century and since 1979 comprise the Canton of Jura.
Tourism is the main source of income in the Bernese Highlands. Other important sectors are agriculture (especially cattle breeding), cheese making, and hydroelectric power generation. The Bernese cheese Emmental is known around the world.
In the Bernese Midlands the lands are more fertile. Agriculture is of great importance, but this part of the canton is also the most industrialized. Small and middle-sized businesses are important employers in this part of the canton of Bern. There is a nuclear power plant at Mühleberg .
The canton of Bern is bilingual: Both German and French are spoken. The majority is German speaking. Most are Protestant.
A number of celebrities are natives of the canton of Bern: Category:Natives of Bern
Districts and Municipalities
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