Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Chełmno is a town in northern Poland with 22,000 inhabitants (1995).
It is not related to Chełmno concentration camp, which was located near a village with a similar name, Chełmno nad Nerem.
The first written mention about Chełmno is known from a document allegedly issued in 1065 by Polish duke Boleslaus I of Poland for the Benedictine Monastery in Mogilno. In 1226 Prince Konrad of Mazovia brought Teutonic Knights to Chełmno Land. In 1233 Chełmno was granted the location privilege called "Chełmno rights" (renewed in 1251), the model system for over 200 Polish towns. The town of Chelmno together Chelmno Land was part of the Teutonic Knights' state until 1466, when after Thirteen Years' War Chełmno was incorporated back into Poland and made the capital of Chelmno Voivodship. In 1772, following partitions of Poland, Chełmno became part of the Kingdom of Prussia. At these times the city was part of the Hanseatic League. Between 1807 and 1815 Chełmno was part of Duchy of Warsaw. Chełmno was recovered by Poland in 1920.
- Kulm, officially used under Teutonic/Prussian/German rules.
- Gothic churches:
- church of St Mary, former main parochial church of town, built 1280-1320
- church of St Jacob, former franciscans church, from 14th c., rebuild in 19 c.
- church of St Peter and Paul, former dominicans church, from 13-14th c. rebuild in 18 and 19th c.
- church of St Johns, former benedictines and cictercians church, with monastery, built 1290-1330
- church of Holy Ghost, from 1280-90
- Town Hall, which oldest part comes from end of 13th c., rebuilt in manneristic style (under Italian influence) in 1567-1572
- city walls which surround whole city, preserved almost as a whole, with watch towers and Grudziądzka Gate
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