Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
The city is named after the cathedral college of Christ Church in the University of Oxford. Its Maori name is Otautahi, from the Maori chief Tautahi who had a settlement on the banks of the Avon River.
|Extent||the city, Kaiapoi,
Prebbleton, Lyttelton &
|Extent||Waimakariri River to the
|See also||Waimakariri District
Christchurch is the main city in Canterbury, New Zealand. It lies at the southern end of Pegasus Bay, in the middle of the east coast of the South Island, between Banks Peninsula and the Canterbury Plains. The official "city" is bounded, to the east by the Pacific Ocean coast and the estuary of the Avon and Heathcote rivers, to the south and south-east by the volcanic slopes of the Port Hills, and in the north by the Waimakariri River. The urban area extends a little further.
The large number of public parks and many well developed residential gardens with many trees throughout the city have given it the name of The Garden City. Hagley Park and the Christchurch Botanic Gardens are located in the centre of the city, with Hagley Park being a site for sports such as golf, netball, and rugby, and for open air concerts by local bands and the Christchurch Symphony Orchestra .
With much of the city being flat and only a few metres above sea level, spectacular views can be obtained from almost any high building. At these low elevations the city appears more like a forest with only a few buildings visible, rather than a major city.
List of Christchurch suburbs
(clockwise from city centre, starting due north)
(clockwise from city centre, starting due north)
Burwood; Parklands; Waimairi Beach; Avondale; New Brighton; Bexley; Aranui; South Brighton; Southshore; Bromley; Redcliffs; Sumner; Ferrymead; Heathcote Valley; Huntsbury; Cashmere; Westmorland; Hoon Hay; Halswell; Oaklands; Wigram; Sockburn; Hornby; Islington; Yaldhurst; Russley; Avonhead; Harewood; Bishopdale; Casebrook; Redwood.
(clockwise from city centre, starting due north)
Christchurch has a temperate climate, with temperatures in January ranging from an average minimum of 12°C to an average maximum of 22°C, and from 1°C to 10°C in July. Summer temperatures are often moderated by a sea breeze from the northeast. A notable feature of the weather is the Nor'wester, a hot föhn wind that is associated with increases in suicide and domestic violence, and occasionally reaches gale force and causes widespread damage to property. In winter, it is common for the temperature to fall below 0°C at night. Light snow falls occur occasionally, on average once every two years.
On cold winter nights, the surrounding hills, clear skies, and frosty calm conditions often combine to form a stable inversion layer above the city that traps vehicle exhausts and smoke from domestic fires to cause smog. While not as bad as smog in Los Angeles, California, Christchurch smog has often been known to exceed World Health Organisation recommendations for air pollution. The city has strict requirements for domestic home heating in order to limit air pollution.
On 6 March 2001, the area administered by the Christchurch City Council had a population of 316,227, making it the second largest in New Zealand, and the largest city in the South Island. The Christchurch Urban Area is the third largest in the country, after Auckland and Wellington.
The population is expected to grow to approximately 358,000 by 2021.
Local economy was based on the agricultural produce of the Canterbury plains. Early manufacturers processed agricultural produce, especially sheep and dairy products, into finished products. The early presence of the University of Canterbury and the heritage of the city's academic institutions working in association local businesses has fostered a number of technology based industries. The region now has a range of "new economy" sectors.
Tourism is also a significant factor of the local economy. The closeness of the ski-fields and other attractions of the Southern Alps and hotels and an airport that meets international standards make Christchurch a stopover destination for many tourists.
- A city council  comprising a mayor, and 24 councillors elected in twelve wards.
- Six community boards, each including two of the twelve wards, with three members from each ward.
- The Canterbury Regional Council,  including four Christchurch constituencies with two members from each constituency.
- The Canterbury District Health Board,  with five members for Christchurch.
- District councils in surrounding areas: Banks Peninsula, Selwyn, and Waimakariri.
For the 2004 regional election, the number of wards has been reduced to six, with a total of 12 councillors. Six community boards remain, each electing three members, plus the two councillors from that ward.
Archeological evidence found in a cave at Redcliffs indicates that the Christchurch area was first settled by moa-hunting tribes. Maori oral history tells that humans began living in the area around 1000 AD. These first inhabitants were followed by the Waitaha who are thought to have migrated from the east coast of the North Island in the 16th century. This migration was joined by the Ngati Mamoe and Ngai Tahu and continued until about 1830.
Although there were European settlers from the 1830s, notably the Deans at Riccarton, what are regarded as the First Four Ships were chartered by the Canterbury Association, and arrived on December 16, 1850 bringing the first English settlers to Lyttelton Harbour. The four ships were Randolph, Charlotte Jane , Sir George Seymour , and Cressy .
Captain Thomas, the Canterbury Association's Chief Surveyor surveyed the surrounding area. By December 1849 he had commissioned the construction of a road from Port Cooper, later called Lyttelton, to Christchurch via Sumner. However this proved more difficult than expected and road construction was stopped while a steep foot and pack horse track was constructed over the hill between the port and the Heathcote valley, where access to the site of the proposed settlement could be gained. This track became known as the Bridle Path, because the path was so steep that pack horses needed to be led by the bridle.
Goods that were too heavy or bulky to be transported by pack horse over the Bridle Path were shipped by small sailing vessels some eight miles by water around the coast and up the estuary to Ferrymead. New Zealand's first public railway line was opened from Ferrymead to Christchurch in 1863. Due to the difficulties in travelling over the Port Hills and the dangers associated with shipping navigating the Sumner bar, a railway tunnel was bored through the Port Hills to Lyttelton, opening in 1867.
Christchurch became a city by Royal Charter on July 31, 1856, making it the oldest city in New Zealand. Many of the city's fine Gothic buildings by the architect Benjamin Mountfort date from this period.
Christchurch was the seat of provincial administration for the province of Canterbury.
A road tunnel was constructed between Lyttelton and Christchurch in the early 1960s.
Christchurch has played a significant role in the history of Antarctic exploration. Both Robert Falcon Scott and Ernest Shackleton used the port of Lyttelton as a departure point for expeditions, and there is a statue of Scott (sculpted by his widow) in the central city. Christchurch International Airport serves as the major base for the New Zealand and Italian Antarctic programmes as well as the United States Antarctic Program. The International Antarctic Centre provides both base facilities and a museum and visitor centre.
- Deans Bush, the Botanic Gardens, and Hagley Park.
- Canterbury Museum .
- Ferrymead Heritage Park.
- Willowbank Wildlife Reserve .
- Air Force Museum.
- Southern Encounter Aquarium and Kiwi House .
- International Antarctic Centre.
- Christ's College, one of New Zealand's leading public schools.
- Christ Church (the Anglican cathedral), the centre of the Church of England settlement which grew into the city.
- The Roman Catholic Basilica, which opened in 1905, is one of the most beautiful churches in the Southern Hemisphere
- Christchurch City Art Gallery (opened 2003).
- Historic electric tram.
- The Christchurch Arts Centre and site of "Ernest Rutherford's Den".
- The Provincial Chambers.
- The Timeball Station in Lyttelton.
- The New Brighton Pier.
- Heathcote Gondola.
- The Summit Road along the top of the Port Hills and Godley Head Road provides numerous spectacular views of the area and features the buildings created as wayside rests, the Sign of the Takahe (now a function centre) and Sign of the Kiwi .
- Walkways include the Bridle Path and Whitewash Head , a bird sanctuary.
Christchurch has one full-time professional theatre, the Court Theatre (external link). There is also an active recreational theatre scene.
Christchurch has approximately 35 cinema screens, with more planned in the next few years. While historically most cinemas were grouped around Cathedral Square, only the Regent complex remains there. The largest multiplexes are the Hoyts 8 in the old central railway station (Moorhouse Ave) and Reading Cinemas (8) in the Palms shopping centre in the suburb of Shirley.
- The Westpac Centre is New Zealand's largest permanent multipurpose arena, seating between 5000 - 8000 depending on configuration. It was the venue for the 2001 World Netball championships.
- The Town Hall Auditorium (2000 seats, opened 1974) was the first major auditorium design by architects Warren and Mahoney and acousticians Marshall Day. It is still recognised as a model example of concert-hall design.
Christchurch has a wide range of dance parties . Information can be obtained from inner-city, cafes such as C-One on High Street, or record stores. While most of the parties are either house or drum'n'bass, occasionally there are good trance and hardhouse parties.
- Rugby Union, represented by the Crusaders in the Super 12 competition and Canterbury in the National Provincial Championship.
- Golf The city has more than a dozen golf courses and has hosted the PGA-sanctioned Clearwater Classic since 2002.
- Netball, represented by the Canterbury Flames in the national league.
- Yachting and windsurfing.
- Swimming, surfing, surf lifesaving, surfcasting , and fishing.
- Hang gliding and parasailing.
Colleges and universities
A number of tertiary education institutions have campuses in Christchurch, or in the surrounding areas.
- Christchurch College of Education
- Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology
- Christchurch School of Medicine and Health Sciences (Otago University)
- Lincoln University
- Southern Institute of Technology
- University of Canterbury
Christchurch has six sister cities around the world. They are:
- Adelaide, Australia
- Christchurch, Dorset, England
- Gansu province, China
- Kurashiki, Japan
- Seattle, Washington, United States of America
- Songpa-Gu , Seoul, South Korea
- Christchurch City Council
- localeye the online gateway to Christchurch & Canterbury, New Zealand.
- Christchurch.org.nz Official City Promotions website
- Christchurch and Canterbury Events
Amodeo, Colin (ed.) (1998). Rescue, The Sumner community and its lifeboat service. Christchurch: Sumner Lifeboat Institution Incorporated.
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