Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
| CAS number |
911-45-5 or 50-41-9
| ATC code |
|Molecular weight|| 406 (without citrate) |
598.10 (with citrate)
|Metabolism||Hepatic (with enterohepatic circulation)|
|Elimination half life||5-7 days|
|Excretion||Mainly renal, some biliary|
|Pregnancy category||X (USA)|
|Delivery||50 mg tablets|
Clomifene or clomifene citrate (old name clomiphene, sold as Clomid®, Serophene®, Milophene® and many others) is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), used mainly in female infertility due to anovulation (e.g. due to polycystic ovary syndrome). In some countries, it is also registered for use in men.
Clomifene acts by inhibiting the action of estrogen on the gonadotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland. "Sensing" low estrogen levels, follicle-stimulating hormone release is increased, leading to a higher rate of ovulation and hence pregnancy.
Clomifene can lead to multiple ovulation, and hence increasing the risk of twins. In comparison to purified FSH, the rate of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is low. There may be an increased risk of ovarian cancer, and weight gain.
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