Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
A computer keyboard is a peripheral modelled after the typewriter keyboard. Keyboards are designed for the input of written text, and also to control the operation of the computer. Physically, computer keyboards are an arrangement of rectangular or near-rectangular buttons, or "keys". Keyboards typically have characters engraved or printed on the keys; in most cases, each press of a key corresponds to a single written symbol. However, to produce some symbols requires pressing and holding several keys simultaneously, or in sequence; other keys do not produce any symbol, but instead affect the operation of the computer, or the keyboard itself. See input method editor.
There exist a large number of different arrangements of symbols on keys. These different keyboard layouts arise because different people need easy access to different symbols; typically, this is because they are writing in different languages, but specialised keyboard layouts for mathematical, accounting, or computer-programming use do exist.
A standard keyboard is physically quite large, as each key must remain large enough to be easily pressed by fingers. Other types of keyboards have been proposed for small portable equipment where a standard keyboard is too large. One way to reduce the number of keys is to use chording, i.e. pressing several keys simultaneously. As an example, the GKOS keyboard has been designed for small wireless devices.
Uses of the Keyboard
In normal usage, the keyboard is used to type text into word procsesor, text editor, or any other textbox.
A keyboard is also used to type commands in a computer. The most famous being Ctrl+Alt+Del, used for various taks which are useful should a program freeze. Many other commands for a variety of tasks exit.
A keyboard is one of the primary controllers in a computer game, and various groups of keys perform game actions. For instance, a group of letters resembling the pattern of the arrow keys, like wasd, is used for movement. Keys can usually be configured to the user's preferences. Alphabet keys are also used to do actions starting, with that letter. (e.g. pressing e to eat in game Nethack)
- alphanumeric keyboard
- Arrow keys
- AT keyboard
- break key
- chiclet keyboard
- Chinese input methods for computers
- enhanced keyboard
- IBM PC keyboard
- keyboard layout
- keyboard technology
- membrane keyboard
- Microsoft Natural keyboard
- Repetitive strain injury
- Dvorak keyboard
- GKOS keyboard
- Twiddler 2, a keyboard designed for wearable computing
- Happy Hacking keyboards, appreciated among geeks
- Interfacing the AT keyboard
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