Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Electrical conductivity is a measure of how well a material accommodates the transport of electric charge. Its SI derived unit is the siemens per metre, (A2s3m-3kg-1) (named after Werner von Siemens). It is the ratio of the current density to the electric field strength. This applies also to the electrolytic conductivity of a fluid.
Conductance is an electrical phenomenon where a material contains movable particles with electric charge, which can carry electricity. When a difference of electrical potential is placed across a conductor, its movable charges flow, and an electric current appears.
A conductor such as a metal has high conductivity, and an insulator like glass or a vacuum has low conductivity. A semiconductor has a conductivity that varies widely under different conditions, such as exposure of the material to electric fields or certain frequencies of light.
SI electricity units
- electrical conduction for a discussion of the physical origin of electrical conductivity
- electrical resistance
- electrical resistivity
For the use of conductivity measurements to record pH spectra which shows the interaction between different molecules as a function of the degree of dissociation of their functional groups, see the following external links:
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