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Congress of Vienna
The Congress of Vienna was a conference between ambassadors from the major powers in Europe that was chaired by the Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich and held in Vienna, Austria, from October 1, 1814, to June 9, 1815. Its purpose was to redraw the continent's political map after the defeat of Napoleonic France the previous spring.
The discussions continued despite the ex-Emperor Napoleon I's return from exile and resumption of power in France in March 1815, and the Congress's Final Act was signed nine days before his final defeat at Waterloo. Technically, one might note that the "Congress of Vienna" never actually occurred, as the Congress never met in plenary session, with most of the discussions occurring in informal sessions among the Great Powers.
The Congress was concerned with determining the entire shape of Europe after the Napoleonic wars, with the exception of the terms of peace with France, which had already been decided by the Treaty of Paris, signed a few months earlier, on May 30, 1814.
At the Congress, the United Kingdom was represented first by its Foreign Secretary, the Viscount Castlereagh; after February 1815, by the Duke of Wellington; and in the last weeks, after Wellington left to meet Napoleon, by the Earl of Clancarty . Austria was represented by Prince Klemens von Metternich, the Foreign Minister, and by his deputy, Baron Wessenberg. Prussia was represented by Prince Karl August von Hardenberg, the Chancellor, and the diplomat and scholar Wilhelm von Humboldt. Louis XVIII's France was represented by its foreign minister Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Perigord. Although Russia's official delegation was led by the foreign minister, Count Nesselrode, Emperor Alexander I for the most part acted on his own behalf. Initially, the representatives of the four victorious powers hoped to exclude the French from serious participation in the negotiations, but Talleyrand managed to skillfully insert himself into their inner councils in the first weeks of the negotiations.
Because most of the work at the Congress was done by these five powers (along with, on some issues, the representatives of Spain, Portugal, and Sweden, and on German issues, of Hanover, Bavaria, and Württemberg), most of the delegations had nothing much to do at the Congress, and the host, Emperor Francis of Austria held lavish entertainments to keep them occupied. This led to the Prince de Ligne's famous comment that "le Congrès ne marche pas ; il danse." (The Congress does not walk; it dances.)
Polish – Saxon crisis
The most contentious subject at the Congress was the so-called Polish-Saxon Crisis. The Russians and Prussians presented a proposal whereby much of the Prussian and Austrian shares of the partitions of Poland would go to Russia, which would create an independent Polish Kingdom in personal union with Russia with Alexander as king. In exchange, the Prussians would receive as compensation all of Saxony, whose King was considered to have forfeited his throne because he had not abandoned Napoleon soon enough. The Austrians, French, and British did not approve of this plan, and, at the inspiration of Talleyrand, signed a secret treaty on January 3, 1815, agreeing to go to war, if necessary, to prevent the Russo-Prussian plan from coming to fruition.
Although none of the three powers was particularly ready for war, the Russians did not call the bluff, and an amicable settlement was soon worked out, by which Russia received most of the Napoleonic Duchy of Warsaw as a "Kingdom of Poland" (called Congress Poland), but did not receive the district of Poznan (Grand Duchy of Poznan), which was given to Prussia, nor Cracow, which became a free city. Prussia received 40% of Saxony (later known as the province of Saxony), with the remainder returned to King Frederick Augustus I (kingdom of Saxony).
The Congress's principal results, apart from its confirmation of France's loss of the territories annexed in 1795 - 1810, which had already been settled by the Peace of Paris, were the enlargement of Russia, (which gained most of the Duchy of Warsaw) and Prussia, which acquired Westphalia and the northern Rhineland. Germany was consolidated from the nearly 300 states of the Holy Roman Empire (dissolved in 1806) into a much more manageable thirty-nine states. These states were formed into a loose German Confederation under the leadership of Prussia and Austria.
Norway, Italy, Netherlands and Germany
Austria gained Lombardy-Venetia in Northern Italy, while much of the rest of North-Central Italy went to Habsburg dynasts (The Grand Duchy of Tuscany, the Duchy of Modena, and the Duchy of Parma). The Pope was restored to the Papal States. The Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia was restored to its mainland possessions, and also gained control of the Republic of Genoa. In Southern Italy, Napoleon's brother-in-law, Joachim Murat, was originally allowed to retain his Kingdom of Naples, but following his support of Napoleon in the Hundred Days, he was deposed, and the Bourbon Ferdinand IV was restored to the throne.
There were other, less important territorial adjustments, including significant territorial gains for the German Kingdoms of Hanover and Bavaria, and according to the Final Minutes of the Congress of Vienna, in article 105, the Portuguese rights to the Territory of Olivenza were recognized.
Italy after the Congress of Vienna (1815)
The Italian peninsula was divided into the following states:
- north-west: Kingdom of Sardinia, capital Turin – formed by Piedmont, Liguria, Sardinia, Savoy and Nizza region; governed by House of Savoy
- north-east: Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia, part of Austrian Empire – formed by Lombardy and Venetia; governed by a viceroy of Austrian emperor
- Duchy of Parma, capital Parma; governed by Habsburg-Lorraine (Maria Louise of Parma)
- Duchy of Modena, capital Modena; governed by Habsburg-Lorraine (Francis IV of Modena)
- Duchy of Massa , capital Massa – annexed by Duchy of Modena in 1829;
- Grand Duchy of Tuscany, capital Florence; governed by Habsburg-Lorraine (Ferdinand III of Tuscany)
- Duchy of Lucca, capital Lucca – annexed by Grand Duchy of Tuscany in 1847; governed by House of Bourbon-Parma
- Papal States, capital Rome – formed by Papal Legations, Marche, Umbria and Latium; governed by the Pope
- south: Kingdom of the Two Sicilies – formed by Abruzzo, Molise, Campania, Basilicata, Puglia, Calabria and Sicily; governed by House of Bourbon
Not directly a part of the Congress, but associated with it, was the Holy Alliance, the brainchild of Alexander, in which the various sovereigns of Europe agreed to abide by Christian principles. Although widely derided by most of the statesmen at the Congress (Castlereagh called it "a piece of sublime mysticism and nonsense" and Metternich a "loud-sounding nothing"), all of Europe's sovereigns agreed to it, except for the Pope, who would not form such an agreement with so many heretics; the Sultan, who was not particularly interested in Christian principles; and the Prince-Regent of the United Kingdom, who could not agree to such a treaty without ministerial involvement (he did sign on in his role as Regent of Hanover). Later, the Holy Alliance became associated with the forces of reaction in Europe, and particularly with the policies of Metternich.
The countries involved with the Congress also agreed to meet at intervals under Article VI:
- "To secure the execution of the present Treaty and to consolidate the connections which at the present moment so closely unite the Four Sovereigns for the happiness of the world they have agreed to renew their Meetings at fixed periods... for the consideration of measures for the repose and prosperity of Nations and for the maintenance of the Peace of Europe"
This led to the establishment of the Congress system and the subsequent congresses.
The Congress of Vienna was frequently criticized by 19th century and more recent historians for ignoring national and liberal impulses, and for imposing a stifling reaction on the continent. Indeed, this criticism was already voiced by the Whig opposition in the UK as soon as the Congress had concluded. The Congress of Vienna was an integral part in what became known as The Conservative Order in which peace and stability were traded for the liberties and civil rights associated with the French Revolution.
In the twentieth century, though, many historians have come to admire the work of the statesmen at the Congress, whose work, it was said, had prevented another European general war for nearly a hundred years (1818-1914). Among these is Henry Kissinger, whose doctoral dissertation was on the Congress of Vienna.
- Henry Kissinger, A World Restored: Metternich, Castlereagh and the Problems of Peace, 1812-1822 (derived from his doctoral dissertation)
- Enno Kraehe, Metternich's German Policy, Vol. 2: The Congress of Vienna, 1814-1815
- Harold Nicolson, The Congress of Vienna: A Study in Allied Unity: 1812-1822.
- Paul Schroeder, The Transformation of European Politics 1763-1848
- Sir Charles Webster, The Foreign Policy of Castlereagh 1812-1815: Britain and the Reconstruction of Europe
Congress of Vienna is also the title of an early nineteenth century waltz.
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