Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Craiova is the chief commercial city west of Bucharest the surrounding uplands are very rich in grain, pasturage and vegetable products, and contain extensive forests. In the town, which is the headquarters of the First Army Corps, there are military and commercial academies, an appeal court and a chamber of commerce, along with many churches — Greek Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Protestant — with synagogues for the Jews.
The natural conditions Craiova has enjoyed, have favored the permanent hiring of population in this region and the succession of many civilizations: the Prethracian civilization, the Thraco-Dacian civilization, the Gaeto-Dacian civilization, the Daco-Roman civilization, the Daco-Roman-Byzantine civilization, then the Romanian one.
Craiova, which occupied the site of the Roman Castra Nova (dacian name Pelendava), was formerly the capital of Little Walachia (Oltenia). Its ancient bans or military governors were, next to the princes, the chief dignitaries of Walachia, and the district is still styled the banat of Craiova. Among the holders of this office were Michael the Brave (1593-1601), and several members of the celebrated Bassarab family. The bans had the right of coining money stamped with their own effigies, and hence arose the name of bani (centimes). The Romanian franc, or leu ('lion'), so called from the image it bore, came likewise from Craiova. In 1397 Craiova was the scene of a victory won by Prince Mircea over Bayezid I, sultan of the Turks.
The Austrian domination in Oltenia during 1718-1739 caused a considerable worsening of the economical obligations and of the fiscality, thus leading to a strong movement of the outlaws and even to opposing actions of the nobility towards the Habsburgian administration. Between the years 1770-1771, Craiova, the city of the Bania, carried on the duty of being the capital of Wallachia. Wallachia's last two rulers were given by another aristocratic great family in Craiova-the Bibescu family: Grigorie Dimitrie Bibescu and Barbu Dimitrie Stirbei .
The inhabitants of this part of country took part to all the important moments of our national history. In 1821 the inhabitants of the nowdays Dolj county participated in great number to the revolution led by Tudor Vladimirescu . In 1848 Nicolae Balcescu, Gheorghe Magheru, I.Heliade Radulescu and the citizen of Craiova Costache Romanescu took the leadership of the provisional government. The 1877-1878 Independence War reunited in the line of fire many soldiers coming from this geographical area, directly territorially involved through the towns near the Danube: Calafat and Poiana Mare, where the Headquarters of the Romanian troops carried on their activity.
The period following the Independence War was a time of economical and cultural progress. As a result, at the end of the nineteenth century, in the 40,000-inhabitants city of Craiova, there were small factories and workshops of textiles, chemical products, farming machines and construction materials. In the year 1910 Craiova's population numbered 51,400 inhabitants, Craiova being considered the second town after the capital. During the First World War the people of the Dolj county fought hard against the foreign occupation, giving their lives for the 1918 reunification of the Romanian people.
The period between the two World Wars can be characterized by an economy preponderantly based on farming, situation that slowed the process of industrialization and led to the development of a social class of important landowners, people who invested their fortunes in magnificent palaces, banks and commercial companies. After the Second World War, in the area there have developped the machine industry, the food industry, the chemical industry, the light industry, the construction materials industry, the electrotechnie industry, the drilling and mining industry and also the aeronautical industry.
For the tourist visiting the Dolj county there are available 1,100 accommodation places in hotels, inns, motels and villas.
Aside the historical sights, the architectural and art monuments that lure the tourists to visiting Dolj, a stroll through the "Romanescu" Park becomes compulsory, as the Park is an architectural landscape monument and it is considered to be the most beautiful in the country and the largest in Europe.
Frequently named "town" after the first half of the XVI century, Craiova was always regarded as an important economic region of Romania.
A proof of the continuous democratic development of Craiova is the increase of the urban population:
- in 1735 over 4000 inhabitants (836 families).
- around 1848 about 20 000 inhabitants.
- around1859, there were 25,000 inhabitants. Craiova was placed immediately after the capital of Romania, Bucharest, which had over 50,000 inhabitants.
- at the end of the XIXth century above 40 000 inhabitants.
- in 1910 there were entered 51,404 inhabitants; Craiova was the second town of Romania, after Bucharest, having over 50,000 inhabitants.
- in 1930 - 63,215 inhabitants.
- in 1948 - 84,574 inhabitants.
- in 1956 - 96.897 inhabitants.
- in 1965 - 150,098 inhabitants.
- in 1975 - 197,820 inhabitants.
- in 1985 - 275,098 inhabitants.
- in 1995 - 308,000 inhabitants.
- in 2005 - 320,000 inhabitants.
During the first two decades of the XIXth century, Craiova was characterized by the economic town flourish, increasing interest of its inhabitants in the handicraft commercial (trade) field, and public services. In comparison with other urbane centers, Craiova is regarded as an important commercial administrative cultural center.
During the czarist rule (1828-1834), Craiova vas an important economic development. In 1832 there were 595 shops, from which 197 made of wood and 398 made of brick (wall). The town was still the commercial center of Oltenia; Craiova exported cereals (grains), furs (skins), animals etc. to in Austria and Turkey.
Because of increasing demands of exportation, there was set up in 1846, the first Romanian stock company from the transportation of the grains by ship on the Danube, at Braila.
Around 1860, there were 4 633 buildings in Craiova, from which 3220 houses, 26 churches, 11 school, 60 factories and work shop. There were about 90 industrial establishments from which 12 mills, 3 beer factories, 2 gas and oil factories, 4 tanning yards and 2 printing works. Statistics mention the existence of 57% from the total number of handicraftsmen of county Dolj in Craiova (1088 handicraftsmen, 687 journeymen and 485 apprentices).
At October 26, 1896, the power station from Craiova began to function (with AEG -Allemeine Elektricitats- Gesellschaft Equipments) having an installed power of 310 CP and which supplied 365 lamps on 39 sheets in a net that was 30 km length. Craiova was the first town supplied with electric power on the bases of internal combustion motors.
In 1900 Craiova had 43,1% from the number of industrial units of Oltenia, counting 924 industrial concerns (from which 20 big industry establishments, using 1078 workers).
In 1925 there were 40 big industry establishments and in 1930 there were 5530 workers.
The banking trade also developed at the beginning of the XXth century there were 6 banks and 2 exchange houses already).
In the period between the two wars, Craiova situated in an eminently agrarian region advanced with too small steps on the industrialization way, in comparison with otter urbane region of the country. The number of those who chose the industrialization (way) was very small. The specific feature of the town economy wanting the big factory production is the importance of the domestic work.
In 1939 there were in Craiova 7 shops (industrial units) with over 100 workers: Cloth Industry "Oltenia", "Scrisul Romanesc" were well-known all over the country and abroad.
Since 1960 the city has become a powerful industrial center: the construction of machines and equipment industry, aeronautic industry, chemical industry, food industry, building materials industry, electrotechnical industry, extractive industry, power industry.
The Revolution from the 1989 brought many important changes in the economic field, by setting up the free market and by decentralizing the management of all national economic sector. The spirit of property was enforced by the liberalization of private initiative and by the privatization of some goods that had belonged exclusively to the State.
In the industrial field, there was a diminution of production of all capacities due to the fact that the direction of the change impact and sock importance that followed the change of economic and social systems couldn't be anticipated . However, the industry is still a very important branch of activity, having a great influence over the economy of this town (70%).
During the post-Revolution period, the telecommunication services, banking and insurance services, the services of consultance in business (CDIMM, Romanian-American Center) registered a real program. The number of join companies and the value of invested capital is very huge at county level, situating the Dolj county on the first place from this point of view. Referring to the importance of invested capital, after the South-Korea - Daewoo Automobile Romania, the biggest vested interest value comes from: Italy, Belgium, Austria, Germany, Switzerland, Greece, Israel,...
The engaged population - about 11,000 persons - is distributed in the following way: 38% in the industrial field, 15% in the trade and repair field, 10% in the transport and depositing field, 8% in the education field, 5.7% medical field.
- History of Craiova - "Scrisul Romanesc" Publishing House -1977
- Craiova , guide of the town - Florea Firan, Alex Firescu, Sport-Turism Publishing House, 1982
- Statistical documentary about the economic and social evolution of Craiova municipality - Dolj County Statistical Office, 1992
- The history of Craiova - "Scrisul Romanesc" Publishing House, 1977
- Serving the light for a century. Oltenia Energetic - monography - "Aius" Publishing House, Craiova, 1996
Universitary Schools and Reserch
The first faculty of Craiova, Faculty of Agronomy, was set up in April 17th 1948. Followed, the Institute of Electric Machines and Apparatus in 1951, the Pedagogic Institute for 3 years (with the faculties: philology, mathematics, physics, chemistry, science, history+geography) in 1959, and the Faculty of Horticulture in 1962. The setting up of The University of Craiova was decided in 1966. In 1974 the University of Craiova consisted of 7 faculties (the basic structures were: science, philology and history, economic science, medicine, electrotechnics, agriculture, horticulture); now there are 16 faculties whose courses are attended by Romanian and foreign students (during the university year 1995-1996 there were placed 15,447 students, from among which 862 were foreign students).
- The Faculty of Science (physics, chemistry, biology)
- The Faculty of Physical Training
- The Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics
- The Faculty of Literature and History
- The Law Faculty "Nicolae Titulescu"
- The Faculty of Theology
- The Faculty of Economic Science
- The Faculty of General Medicine
- The Faculty of Stomatology
- The Faculty of Pharmaceutics
- The Faculty of Automatics, Computers and Electronics
- The Faculty of Electrotechnics
- The Faculty of Electromechanics
- The Faculty of Mechanics
- The Faculty of Horticulture
- The Faculty of Agriculture
The scientific research was supported by the university medium as well as by the setting up of the research institutes dedicated to diverse fields of activity: engineering of power machines and transformers, the industry of lignite, forest planning, designing and town planning, automatization and calculus techniques.
After December 1989, there were set up many cultural and professional scientific establishments that try, by their activity, to refresh the intellectual life of this region.
We recall the Omnia French Library Foundation (in the cultural field) and The Romanian Society for Optimization of energy consumption - SOCER
Here is a short list of the most important persons of this town:
- Petrache Poenaru (1799-1875), the founder of the national colleges of Bucharest and Craiova, the leader of the schooling in Wallachia during 3 decades, the inventor of the fountain-pen;
- the diplomat Nicolae Titulescu, the single diplomat who was twice elected in 1930 and 1931 the President of the United Nations League, member of the Romanian Academy, Honoris Causa Doctor of the Universities of Athena and Bratislava, President of International Diplomatic Academy;
- the engineer Gogu Constantinescu, inventor, the creator of the science of sonicity;
- the famous scientist Henri Coanda, inventor of the jet, the father of "the Coanda effect", important member of the Royal British Academy;
- mathematicians Gheorghe Titeica and Traian Lalescu;
- the astronomer Nicolae Coculescu, the founder of the Astronomical Observatory of Bucharest, laureate of the Academy of Science of Paris;
- the doctors Dimitrie Gerota, Demetru Paulian;
- the writers Alexandru Macedonski, Traian Demetrescu, Gib I. Mihaescu, Alexandru Mitru, Marin Sorescu;
- the philosopher C.Radulescu-Motru the last president of the Romanian Academy;
- the sculptor Constantin Brancusi, famous artist;
- the painters Theodor Aman , Constantin Lecca, Eustatiu Stoenescu, Ion Tuculescu;
- the composer Ion Vasilescu;
- the tenor Grigore Gabrielescu;
- Gheorghe Mitrea (1934- ), entrepreneur and philantropist;
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