Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
David Sarnoff (February 27, 1891 – December 12, 1971) was the General Manager of Radio Corporation of America (RCA) from its founding in 1919 to his retirement in 1970. Known as the general he ruled over an ever-growing radio and electronics empire that became one of the largest companies in the world.
Born in Uzliany village near Minsk, Russian Empire (now in Belarus), Sarnoff's early childhood was spent studying to be a rabbi. He emigrated to the US in 1900, and was forced to work to feed his parents and siblings by selling Yiddish-language newspapers in New York City. He Joined the Marconi Wireless Company in 1906, and studied electrical engineering at the Pratt Institute. When he was 21 he had a job as telegraph operator at the Wanamaker Department Store, where he picked up news of the sinking of Titanic and relayed news and names of survivors to people waiting outside.
When he was put in charge of radio broadcasting at RCA, he soon recognized the potential of television. He was determined to pioneer the medium, but could not find the appropriate technology. Then in 1929, Vladimir Zworykin invented the all-electric camera tube. Zworykin demonstrated both the iconoscope and kinescope to the Institute of Radio Engineers. In attendance was David Sarnoff. When the two met, Zworykin promised Sarnoff he could build viable television systems with a mere $100,000 grant in two years. He was off by several orders of magnitude and several years, but Sarnoff decided to invest. He hired Zworykin to develop his television system for RCA. The final cost of the enterprise was closer to $50 million. On the way they had to battle a young genius inventor Philo T. Farnsworth who managed to secure patents for his solution to broadcasting moving pictures.
In 1929, Sarnoff engineered the purchase of The Victor Talking Machine Company , the nation's largest manufacturer of records and phonographs, merging radio-phonograph production at Victor's large manufacturing facility in Camden, New Jersey.
Initially, the Great Depression caused RCA to cut costs, but Zworykin's project was protected. After nine years of hard work, Sarnoff's determination and Zworykin's genius, they had a commercial system ready to launch. Franklin D. Roosevelt was the first president to be shown on TV (at the 1939 New York World's Fair). Meanwhile, an alternative system was adopted in Britain and used by the BBC in 1936. However, World War II put a halt to a dynamic growth of the early television.
In 1970, at 79, Sarnoff retired. The next year he died in his sleep of cardiac arrest. Without his leadership, RCA quickly faded during the 1970s, and today exists in name only as a subsidiary of General Electric.
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