Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Delta Air Lines
Delta Air Lines is a major U.S. airline headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia, operating a large domestic and international network that spans North America, South America, Europe, and Asia. It uses the IATA designator code DL, as well as the ICAO designator code DAL. Delta Air Lines, Inc., is incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware. As of January, 2004, Gerald Grinstein is the Chief Executive Officer.
Delta operates major connecting hubs at the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport, the Cincinnati-Northern Kentucky International Airport and the Salt Lake City International Airport. A fourth hub at the Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport was closed on January 31, 2005. Delta also has large operations in many other cities including Boston, Los Angeles, New York, Orlando, and Washington, D.C. Delta's major international gateways are located in Atlanta, Cincinnati, and New York.
Delta operates several airline brands within the airline. The "mainline" Delta brand serves primarily long-haul, high-volume flights and most international services. Short-haul, high frequency service between Boston, New York, and Washington, D.C., are operated in a single-class configuration under the Delta Shuttle brand. The Delta brand Song began single-class, "low-thrills" service on some of its leisure dominated routes on April 15, 2003.
Separate regional airlines operate feeder flights, under code share agreements, primarily to Delta hub cities under the Delta Connection banner. These airlines include wholly-owned subsidiaries Comair, and Atlantic Southeast Airlines, as well as independent carriers Chautauqua Airlines, SkyWest, and American Eagle.
As of March 1, 2005, Delta (including wholly-owned subsidiaries) served 219 domestic cities in 46 states, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, as well as 53 cities in 35 countries. Including domestic and international codeshare partners, Delta's route network covers over 503 cities in 89 countries.
Of all major U.S. airlines, Delta is the least unionized. At December 31, 2003, Delta had a total of approximately 70,600 full-time equivalent employees, of which only approximately 18% were represented by unions.
The company has its roots in Huff Daland Dusters, which was founded in 1924 in Macon, Georgia but moved to Monroe, Louisiana the following year. In 1928, Huff Daland Dusters was purchased and renamed 'Delta Air Services', where its route connected Dallas, Texas to Jackson, Mississippi, via Shreveport, Louisiana and Monroe. In 1941, Delta moved its headquarters from Monroe to Atlanta, Georgia, to center itself along its new route network that connected Chicago and New Orleans to Florida.
In the 1950s, Delta began flights from New Orleans to the Caribbean and Venezuela, becoming the number 2 U.S. carrier in the region after Pan Am and Braniff. By the early 1960s, Delta's route network stretched to the West Coast, and Dallas was emerging as its second hub city. Delta was the launch operator of both the DC-8 and DC-9 jets.
Delta purchased Northeast Airlines in 1972 to strengthen its market share in the northeastern United States. In 1978, Delta began flying from Atlanta to London with new Lockheed L-1011 TriStar aircraft: Frankfurt was added the following year.
Delta was named official airline to Walt Disney World in 1985. Their official ride in the Magic Kingdom was Delta Dreamflight. In 1987, Delta took over Western Airlines and absorbed its large hubs at Salt Lake City and Los Angeles. That year, Delta began flights from Portland, Oregon to Tokyo, Seoul, and Bangkok, its first transpacific routes.
Delta was the first airline to operate the MD-11 aircraft in 1990. Delta's most dramatic expansion came with its purchase of Pan American's European routes in 1991, shortly before Pan Am declared bankruptcy. The purchase gave Delta the largest transatlantic route network through most of the 1990s and a small group of A310 aircraft that were retired after a few years.
Delta operated its last MD-11 flight on January 1, 2004, Flight 56 departing New Tokyo International Airport (now Narita International Airport) at 4:45pm. The aircraft arrived in Atlanta at 3:20pm. This concluded MD-11 service in the fleet (being replaced by the Boeing 777-200), with Delta having retired the other three-engined aircraft, the Boeing 727 (replaced by the Boeing 737-800) in 2003, and the Lockheed L-1011 (replaced by the Boeing 767-400) in 2001. Its entire active fleet is now comprised of twinjets. Delta had 14 MD-11's at the time of the aircraft's retirement. On September 23, 2004, a Delta spokesperson confirmed plans to sell eight MD-11s to FedEx.
As part of Delta's transformation plan, they are planning to retire four aircraft types. According to a report by Aviation Daily, Delta is planning to retire their 737-200, 737-300, 767-200, and MD-90 fleet. A more recent report by Dow Jones Newswires (article at iWon Money) states that Delta's CFO Michael Palumbo aims to drop the 737-200, 737-300, and 767-200. The fourth type is currently undecided, being either the MD-80 or MD-90. Replacement aircraft are currently unknown, although it is expected that the MD-80 or MD-90 will be replaced by a 737 family aircraft, particularly the 737-800.
In 2004, in an effort to avoid bankruptcy, Delta announced a restructuring of the company that included job cuts as well as turnaround plans for expansion of Atlanta operations by some 100 new flights making it a 'super-hub' and requiring the airline to spread its flight schedule more evenly across the day.
On January 5, 2005, the company changed the way it charges its fares. That it is cutting its most expensive fares by as much as 50 percent nationwide and simplifying its fare structure is not so simple. It's true - no fare will be higher than $499 one-way in coach class or $599 one-way in first class in the continental United States.
On the morning of August 2, 1985, Delta Air Lines Flight 191, on a Fort Lauderdale-Dallas/Fort Worth-Los Angeles route, crashed at Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, killing 133 of the 164 passengers on board. The crash would later become the subject of a television movie.
Delta Air Lines Fleet
Delta has abolished three-class seating, replacing both first and business class on intercontinental flights with a single premium class called "BusinessElite."
|Type||Number||Orders||Options||Rolling Options||Total # of seats||Cargo capacity||Engine Model||Audio/Video|
|Boeing 737-232||52||0||0||0||100||850 ft³ (24 m³)||Pratt & Whitney JT8D-15A||No|
|Boeing 737-332||26||0||0||0||128||850 ft³ (24 m³)||CFM International CFM56-3B1||No|
|McDonnell Douglas / Boeing MD-88||120||0||0||0||142||1,253 ft³ (35.5 m³)||Pratt & Whitney JT8D-219||No|
|McDonnell Douglas / Boeing MD-90||16||0||0||0||150||1,300 ft³ (36.8 m³)||International Aero V2525-D5||Yes|
|Boeing 737-832||71||61||60||168||150||1,555 ft³ (44.0 m³)||CFM International CFM56-7B26||Yes|
|Boeing 757-232||121||0||0||0||183||1,670 ft³ (47.3 m³)||Pratt & Whitney PW2037||Yes|
|Boeing 767-232||15||0||0||0||204||2,875 ft³ (81.4 m³)||GE CF6-80A||Yes|
|Boeing 767-332||28||0||0||0||252||3,770 ft³ (107 m³)||GE CF6-80A2||Yes|
|Boeing 767-332ER||59||0||10||6||204||3,770 ft³ (107 m³)||GE CF6-80C2B6F / Pratt & Whitney PW4060||Yes|
|Boeing 767-432ER||21||0||22||0||285||4,580 ft³ (130 m³)||GE CF6-80C2B7F||Yes|
|Boeing 777-232||8||5||20||5||268||5,656 ft³ (160 m³)||Rolls-Royce Trent 892||Yes|
See full article: Delta Air Lines destinations
IATA and ICAO Code
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