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# Science Fair Project Encyclopedia

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# Dewey Decimal Classification

(Redirected from Dewey Decimal System)

The Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC, also called the Dewey Decimal System) is a system of library classification developed by Melvil Dewey (18511931) in 1876, and since greatly modified and expanded in the course of the twenty-two major revisions which have occurred up until 2004.

 Contents

## How it works

The DDC attempts to organize all knowledge into ten main classes that, excluding the first class (000 Computers, information and general reference), proceed from the divine (philosophy & religion) to the mundane (history & geography). DDC's cleverness is in choosing decimals for its categories; this allows it to be both purely numerical and infinitely hierarchical. It also is a faceted classification, combining elements from different parts of the structure to construct a number representing the subject content (often combining two subject elements with linking numbers and geographical and temporal elements) and form of an item rather than drawing upon a list containing each class and its meaning.

Except for general works and fiction, works are classified principally by subject, with extensions for subject relationships, place, time or type of material, producing classification numbers of not less than three digits but otherwise of indeterminate length with a decimal point before the fourth digit, where present (e.g. 330 for economy + 94 for Europe = 330.94 European economy; 973 for United States + 005 form division for periodicals = 973.005, periodicals concerning the United States generally); classmarks are to be read as numbers, in the order: 050, 220, 330.973, 331 etc. Any letter should be read as preceding any number that might have occupied the same character position, so "330.94 A" would come before 330.943. The system uses ten main classes, which are then further subdivided. Each main class has ten divisions and each division has ten sections. Hence the system can be neatly summarized in 10 main classes, 100 divisions and 1000 sections. It is a common misconception that all books in the DDC are non-fiction. However, the DDC has a number for all books, including those that generally become their own section of fiction. If DDC rules were strictly followed, American fiction would be classified in 813. Most libraries create a separate fiction section because of the space that would be taken up in the 800s.

## Main classes

The system is made of up ten categories:

• 000 Computers, information and general reference
• 100 Philosophy and psychology
• 200 Religion
• 300 Social sciences
• 400 Language
• 500 Science and mathematics
• 600 Technology
• 700 Arts and recreation
• 800 Literature
• 900 History and geography

## Classes

000 Generalities

001 Knowledge

002 The book

003 Systems

004 Data processing Computer science

005 Computer programming, programs, data

006 Special computer methods

007 Not assigned or no longer used

008 Not assigned or no longer used

009 Not assigned or no longer used

010 Bibliography

011 Bibliographies

012 Bibliographies of individuals

013 Bibliographies of works by specific classes of authors

014 Bibliographies of anonymous and pseudonymous works

015 Bibliographies of works from specific places

016 Bibliographies of works from specific subjects

017 General subject catalogs

018 Catalogs arranged by author & date

019 Dictionary catalogs

020 Library & information sciences

021 Library relationships

022 Administration of the physical plant

024 Not assigned or no longer used

025 Library operations

026 Libraries for specific subjects

027 General libraries

028 Reading, use of other information media

029 Not assigned or no longer used

030 General encyclopedic works

031 General encyclopedic works -- American

032 General encyclopedic works in English

033 General encyclopedic works in other Germanic languages

034 General encyclopedic works in French, Provencal, Catalan

035 General encyclopedic works in Italian, Romanian, Rhaeto-Romanic

036 General encyclopedic works in Spanish & Portuguese

037 General encyclopedic works in Slavic languages

038 General encyclopedic works in Scandinavian languages

039 General encyclopedic works in other languages

040 - 049 No longer assisgned or no longer used

050 General serials & their indexes

051 General serials & their indexes American

052 General serials & their indexes In English

053 General serials & their indexes In other Germanic languages

054 General serials & their indexes In French, Provencal, Catalan

055 General serials & their indexes In Italian, Romanian, Rhaeto-Romanic

056 General serials & their indexes In Spanish & Portuguese

057 General serials & their indexes In Slavic languages

058 General serials & their indexes In Scandinavian languages

059 General serials & their indexes In other languages

060 General organization & museology

061 General organization & museology In North America

062 General organization & museology In British Isles In England

063 General organization & museology In central Europe In Germany

064 General organization & museology In France & Monaco

065 General organization & museology In Italy & adjacent territories

066 General organization & museology In Iberian Peninsula & adjacent islands

067 General organization & museology In eastern Europe In Soviet Union

068 General organization & museology In other areas

069 Museology (Museum science)

070 News media, journalism, publishing

071 News media, journalism, publishing In North America

072 News media, journalism, publishing In British Isles In England

073 News media, journalism, publishing In central Europe In Germany

074 News media, journalism, publishing In France & Monaco

075 News media, journalism, publishing In Italy & adjacent territories

076 News media, journalism, publishing In Iberian Peninsula & adjacent islands

077 News media, journalism, publishing In eastern Europe In Soviet Union

078 News media, journalism, publishing In Scandinavia

079 News media, journalism, publishing In other languages

080 General collections

081 General collections American

082 General collections In English

083 General collections In other Germanic languages

084 General collections In French, Provencal, Catalan

085 General collections In Italian, Romanian, Rhaeto-Romanic

086 General collections In Spanish & Portuguese

087 General collections In Slavic languages

088 General collections In Scandinavian languages

089 General collections In other languages

090 Manuscripts & rare books

091 Manuscripts

092 Block books

093 Incunabula

094 Printed books

095 Books notable for bindings

096 Books notable for illustrations

097 Books notable for ownership or origin

098 Prohibited works, forgeries, hoaxes

099 Books notable for format

100 Philosophy & psychology

101 Theory of philosophy

102 Miscellany of philosophy

103 Dictionaries of philosophy

104 Not assigned or no longer used

105 Serial publications of philosophy

106 Organizations of philosophy

107 Education, research in philosophy

108 Kinds of persons in philosophy

109 Historical treatment of philosophy

110 Metaphysics

111 Ontology

112 Not assigned or no longer used

113 Cosmology (Philosophy of nature)

114 Space

115 Time

116 Change

117 Structure

118 Force & Energy

119 Number & quantity

120 Epistemology, causation, humankind

121 Epistemology (Theory of knowledge)

122 Causation

123 Determinism & indeterminism

124 Teleology

125 Not assigned or no longer used

126 The self

127 The unconscious & the subconscious

128 Humankind

129 Origin & destiny of individual souls

130 Paranormal phenomena

131 Occult methods for achieving well-being

132 Not assigned or no longer used

133 Parapsychology & occultism

134 Not assigned or no longer used

135 Dreams & mysteries

136 Not assigned or no longer used

137 Divinatory graphology

138 Physiognomy

139 Phrenology

140 Specific philosophical schools

141 Idealism & related systems

142 Critical philosophy

143 Intuitionism & Bergsonism

144 Humanism & related systems

145 Sensationalism

146 Naturalism & related systems

147 Pantheism & related systems

149 Other philosophical systems

150 Psychology

151 Not assigned or no longer used

152 Perception, movement, emotions, drives

153 Mental processes & intelligence

154 Subconscious & altered states

155 Differential & developmental psychology

156 Comparative psychology

157 Not assigned or no longer used

158 Applied psychology

159 Not assigned or no longer used

160 Logic

161 Induction

162 Deduction

163 Not assigned or no longer used

164 Not assigned or no longer used

165 Fallacies & sources of error

166 Syllogisms

167 Hypotheses

168 Argument & persuasion

169 Analogy

170 Ethics (Moral philosophy)

171 Systems & doctrines

172 Political ethics

173 Ethics of family relationships

174 Economic & professional ethics

175 Ethics of recreation & leisure

176 Ethics of sex & reproduction

177 Ethics of social relations

178 Ethics of consumption

179 Other ethical norms

180 Ancient, medieval, Oriental philosophy

181 Oriental philosophy

182 Pre-Socratic Greek philosophies

183 Sophistic & Socratic philosophies

184 Platonic philosophy

185 Aristotelian philosophy

186 Skeptic and Neoplatonic philosophies

187 Epicurean philosophy

188 Stoic philosophy

189 Medieval Western philosophy

190 Modern Western philosophy

191 Modern Western philosophy United States & Canada

192 Modern Western philosophy British Isles

193 Modern Western philosophy Germany & Austria

194 Modern Western philosophy France

195 Modern Western philosophy Italy

196 Modern Western philosophy Spain & Portugal

197 Modern Western philosophy Soviet Union

198 Modern Western philosophy Scandinavia

199 Modern Western philosophy Other geographical areas

200 Religion

201 Philosophy of Christianity

202 Miscellany of Christianity

203 Dictionaries of Christianity

204 Special topics

205 Serial publications of Christianity

206 Organizations of Christianity

207 Education, research in Christianity

208 Kinds of persons in Christianity

209 History & geography of Christianity

210 Natural theology

211 Concepts of God

212 Existence, attributes of God

213 Creation

214 Theodicy

215 Science & religion

216 Good & evil

217 Not assigned or no longer used

218 Humankind

219 Not assigned or no longer used

220 Bible

221 Old Testament

222 Historical books of Old Testament

223 Poetic books of Old Testament

224 Prophetic books of Old Testament

225 New Testament 226 Gospels & Acts

227 Epistles

228 Revelation (Apocalypse)

229 Apocrypha & pseudepigrapha

230 Christian theology

231 God

232 Jesus Christ & his family

233 Humankind

234 Salvation (Soteriology) & grace

235 Spiritual beings

236 Eschatology

237 Not assigned or no longer used

238 Creeds & catechisms

239 Apologetics & polemics

240 Christian moral & devotional theology

241 Moral theology

242 Devotional literature

243 Evangelistic writings for individuals

244 Not assigned or no longer used

245 Texts of hymns

246 Use of art in Christianity

247 Church furnishings & articles

248 Christian experience, practice, life

249 Christian observances in family life

250 Christian orders & local church

251 Preaching (Homiletics)

252 Texts of sermons

253 Pastoral office (Pastoral theology)

255 Religious congregations & orders

256 - 258 Not assigned or no longer used

259 Activities of the local church

260 Christian social theology

261 Social theology

262 Ecclesiology

263 Times, places of religious observance

264 Public worship

265 Sacraments, other rites & acts

266 Missions

267 Associations for religious work

268 Religious education

269 Spiritual renewal

270 Christian church history

271 Religious orders in church history

272 Persecutions in church history

273 Heresies in church history

274 Christian church in Europe

275 Christian church in Asia

276 Christian church in Africa

277 Christian church in North America

278 Christian church in South America

279 Christian church in other areas

280 Christian denominations & sects

281 Early church & Eastern churches

282 Roman Catholic Church

283 Anglican churches

284 Protestants of Continental origin

285 Presbyterian, Reformed, Congregational

286 Baptist, Disciples of Christ, Adventist

287 Methodist & related churches

288 Not assigned or no longer used

289 Other denominations & sects

290 Other & comparative religions

291 Comparative religion

292 Classical (Greek & Roman) religion

293 Germanic religion

294 Religions of Indic origin

295 Zoroastrianism (Mazdaism, Parseeism)

296 Judaism

297 Islam & religions originating in it

298 Not assigned or no longer used

299 Other religions

300 Social sciences

301 Sociology & anthropology

302 Social interaction

303 Social processes

304 Factors affecting social behavior

305 Social groups

306 Culture & institutions

307 Communities

308 Not assigned or no longer used

309 Not assigned or no longer used

310 General statistics

311 - 313 Not assigned or no longer used

314 General statistics Of Europe

315 General statistics Of Asia

316 General statistics Of Africa

317 General statistics Of North America

318 General statistics Of South America

319 General statistics Of other parts of the world

320 Political science

321 Systems of governments & states

322 Relation of state to organized groups

323 Civil & political rights

324 The political process

325 International migration & colonization

326 Slavery & emancipation

327 International relations

328 The legislative process

329 Not assigned or no longer used

330 Economics

331 Labor economics

332 Financial economics

333 Land economics

334 Cooperatives

335 Socialism & related systems

336 Public finance

337 International economics

338 Production

339 Macroeconomics & related topics

340 Law

341 International law

343 Military, tax, trade, industrial law

344 Social, labor, welfare, & related law

345 Criminal law

346 Private law

347 Civil procedure & courts

348 Law (Statutes), regulations, cases

349 Law of specific jurisdictions & areas

351 Of central governments

352 Of local governments

353 of U.S. federal & state governments

354 Of specific central governments

355 Military science

356 Foot forces & warfare

357 Mounted forces & warfare

358 Other specialized forces & services

359 Sea (Naval) forces & warfare

360 Social services; association

361 General social problems & services

362 Social welfare problems & services

363 Other social problems & services

364 Criminology

365 Penal & related institutions

366 Association

367 General clubs

368 Insurance

369 Miscellaneous kinds of associations

370 Education

371 School management; special education

372 Elementary education

373 Secondary education

375 Curriculums

376 Education of women

377 Schools & religion

378 Higher education

379 Government regulation, control, support

380 Commerce, communications, transport

383 Postal communication

384 Communications Telecommunication

386 Inland waterway & ferry transportation

387 Water, air, space transportation

388 Transportation Ground transportation

389 Metrology & standardization

390 Customs, etiquette, folklore

391 Costume & personal appearance

392 Customs of life cycle & domestic life

393 Death customs

394 General customs

395 Etiquette (Manners)

396 Not assigned or no longer used

397 Not assigned or no longer used

398 Folklore

399 Customs of war & diplomacy

400 Language

401 Philosophy & theory

402 Miscellany

403 Dictionaries & encyclopedias

404 Special topics

405 Serial publications

406 Organizations & management

407 Education, research, related topics

408 With respect to kinds of persons

409 Geographical & persons treatment

410 Linguistics

411 Writing systems

412 Etymology

413 Dictionaries

414 Phonology

415 Structural systems (Grammar)

416 Not assigned or no longer used

417 Dialectology & historical linguistics

418 Standard usage Applied linguistics

419 Verbal language not spoken or written

420 English & Old English

421 English writing system & phonology

422 English etymology

423 English dictionaries

424 Not assigned or no longer used

425 English grammar

426 Not assigned or no longer used

427 English language variations

428 Standard English usage

429 Old English (Anglo-Saxon)

430 Germanic languages German

431 German writing system & phonology

432 German etymology

433 German dictionaries

434 Not assigned or no longer used

435 German grammar

436 Not assigned or no longer used

437 German language variations

438 Standard German usage

439 Other Germanic languages

440 Romance languages French

441 French writing system & phonology

442 French etymology

443 French dictionaries

444 Not assigned or no longer used

445 French grammar

446 Not assigned or no longer used

447 French language variations

448 Standard French usage

449 Provencal & Catalan

450 Italian, Romanian, Rhaeto-Romantic

451 Italian writing system & phonology

452 Italian etymology

453 Italian dictionaries

454 Not assigned or no longer used

455 Italian grammar

456 Not assigned or no longer used

457 Italian language variations

458 Standard Italian usage

459 Romanian & Rhaeto-Romanic

460 Spanish & Portugese languages

461 Spanish writing system & phonology

462 Spanish etymology

463 Spanish dictionaries

464 Not assigned or no longer used

465 Spanish grammar

466 Not assigned or no longer used

467 Spanish language variations

468 Standard Spanish usage

469 Portugese

470 Italic Latin

471 Classical Latin writing & phonology

472 Classical Latin etymology & phonology

473 Classical Latin dictionaries

474 Not assigned or no longer used

475 Classical Latin grammar

476 Not assigned or no longer used

477 Old, Postclassical, Vulgar Latin

478 Classical Latin usage

479 Other Italic languages

480 Hellenic languages Classical Greek

481 Classical Greek writing & phonology

482 Classical Greek etymology

483 Classical Greek dictionaries

484 Not assigned or no longer used

485 Classical Greek grammar

486 Not assigned or no longer used

487 Preclassical & postclassical Greek

488 Classical Greek usage

489 Other Hellenic languages

490 Other languages

491 East Indo-European & Celtic languages

492 Afro-Asiatic languages Semitic

493 Non-Semitic Afro-Asiatic languages

494 Ural-Altaic, Paleosiberian, Dravidian

495 Languages of East & Southeast Asia

496 African languages

497 North American native languages

498 South American native languages

499 Miscellaneous languages

500 Natural sciences & mathematics

501 Philosophy & theory

502 Miscellany

503 Dictionaries & encyclopedias

504 Not assigned or no longer used

505 Serial publications

506 Organizations & management

507 Education, research, related topics

508 Natural history

509 Historical, areas, persons treatment

510 Mathematics

511 General principles

512 Algebra & number theory

513 Arithmetic

514 Topology

515 Analysis

516 Geometry

517 Not assigned or no longer used

518 Not assigned or no longer used

519 Probabilities & applied mathematics

520 Astronomy & allied sciences

521 Celestial mechanics

522 Techniques, equipment, materials

523 Specific celestial bodies & phenomena

524 Not assigned or no longer used

525 Earth (Astronomical geography)

526 Mathematical geography

528 Ephemerides

529 Chronology

530 Physics

531 Classical mechanics Solid mechanics

532 Fluid mechanics Liquid mechanics

533 Gas mechanics

534 Sound & related vibrations

535 Light & paraphotic phenomena

536 Heat

537 Electricity & electronics

538 Magnetism

539 Modern physics

540 Chemistry & allied sciences

541 Physical & theoretical chemistry

542 Techniques, equipment, materials

543 Analytical chemistry

544 Qualitative analysis

545 Quantitative analysis

546 Inorganic chemistry

547 Organic chemistry

548 Crystallography

549 Mineralogy

550 Earth sciences

551 Geology, hydrology, meteorology

552 Petrology

553 Economic geology

554 Earth sciences of Europe

555 Earth sciences of Asia

556 Earth sciences of Africa

557 Earth sciences of North America

558 Earth sciences of South America

559 Earth sciences of other areas

560 Paleontology Paleozoology

561 Paleobotany

562 Fossil invertebrates

563 Fossil primitive phyla

564 Fossil Mollusca & Molluscoidea

565 Other fossil invertebrates

566 Fossil Vertebrata (Fossil Craniata)

567 Fossil cold-blooded vertebrates

568 Fossil Aves (Fossil birds)

569 Fossil Mammalia

570 Life sciences

571 Not assigned or no longer used

572 Human races

573 Physical anthropology

574 Biology

575 Evolution & genetics

576 Microbiology

577 General nature of life

578 Microscopy in biology

579 Collection and preservation

580 Botanical sciences

581 Botany

582 Spermatophyta (Seed-bearing plants)

583 Dicotyledones

584 Monocotyledones

585 Gymnospermae (Pinophyta)

586 Cryptogamia (Seedless plants)

587 Pteridophyta (Vascular cryptograms)

588 Bryophyta

589 Thallobionta & Prokaryotae

590 Zoological sciences

591 Zoology

592 Invertebrates

593 Protozoa, Echinodermata, related phyla

594 Mollusca & Molluscoidea

595 Other invertebrates

596 Vertebrata (Craniata, Vertebrates)

597 Cold-blooded vertebrates Fishes

598 Aves (Birds)

599 Mammalia (Mammals)

600 Technology (Applied sciences)

601 Philosophy & theory

602 Miscellany

603 Dictionaries & encyclopedias

604 Special topics

605 Serial publications

606 Organizations

607 Education, research, related topics

608 Invention & patents

609 Historical, areas, persons treatment

610 Medical sciences Medicine

611 Human anatomy, cytology, histology

612 Human physiology

613 Promotion of health

614 Incidence & prevention of disease

615 Pharmacology & theraputics

616 Diseases

617 Surgery & related medical specialities

618 Gynecology & other medical specialities

619 Experimental medicine

620 Engineering & allied operations

621 Applied physics

622 Mining & related operations

623 Military & nautical engineering

624 Civil engineering

626 Not assigned or no longer used

627 Hydraulic engineering

628 Sanitary & municipal engineering

629 Other branches of engineering

630 Agriculture

631 Techniques, equipment, materials

632 Plant injuries, diseases, pests

633 Field & plantation crops

634 Orchards, fruits, forestry

635 Garden crops (Horticulture)

636 Animal husbandry

637 Processing dairy & related products

638 Insect culture

639 Hunting, fishing, conservation

640 Home economics & family living

641 Food & drink

642 Meals & table service

643 Housing & household equipment

644 Household utilities

645 Household furnishings

646 Sewing, clothing, personal living

647 Management of public households

648 Housekeeping

649 Child rearing & home care of sick

650 Management & auxiliary services

651 Office services

652 Processes of written communication

653 Shorthand

654 - 656 Not assigned or no longer used

657 Accounting

658 General management

660 Chemical engineering

661 Industrial chemicals technology

662 Explosives, fuels technology

663 Beverage technology

664 Food technology

665 Industrial oils, fats, waxes, gases

666 Ceramic & allied technologies

667 Cleaning, color, related technologies

668 Technology of other organic products

669 Metallurgy

670 Manufacturing

671 Metalworking & metal products

672 Iron, steel, other iron alloys

673 Nonferrous metals

674 Lumber processing, wood products, cork

675 Leather & fur processing

676 Pulp & paper technology

677 Textiles

678 Elastomers & elastomer products

679 Other products of specific materials

680 Manufacture for specific uses

681 Precision instruments & other devices

682 Small forge work (Blacksmithing)

683 Hardware & household appliances

684 Furnishings & home workshops

685 Leather, fur, related products

686 Printing & related activities

687 Clothing

688 Other final products & packaging

689 Not assigned or no longer used

690 Buildings

691 Building materials

692 Auxiliary construction practices

693 Specific materials & purposes

694 Wood construction Carpentry

695 Roof covering

696 Utilities

697 Heating, ventilating, air-conditioning

698 Detail finishing

699 Not assigned or no longer used

700 The arts

701 Philosophy & theory

702 Miscellany

703 Dictionaries & encyclopedias

704 Special topics

705 Serial publications

706 Organizations & management

707 Education, research, related topics

708 Galleries, museums, private collections

709 Historical, areas, persons treatment

710 Civic & landscape art

711 Area planning (Civic art)

712 Landscape architecture

713 Landscape architecture of trafficways

714 Water features

715 Woody plants

716 Herbaceous plants

717 Structures

718 Landscape design of cemeteries

719 Natural landscapes

720 Architecture

721 Architectural structure

722 Architecture to ca. 300

723 Architecture from ca. 300 to 1399

724 Architecture from 1400

725 Public structures

726 Buildings for religious purposes

727 Buildings for education & research

728 Residential & related buildings

729 Design & decoration

730 Plastic arts Sculpture

731 Processes, forms, subjects of sculpture

732 Sculpture to ca. 500

733 Greek, Etruscan, Roman sculpture

734 Sculpture from ca. 500 to 1399

735 Sculpture from 1400

736 Carving & carvings

737 Numismatics & sigillography

738 Ceramic arts

739 Art metalwork

740 Drawing & decorative arts

741 Drawing & drawings

742 Perspective

743 Drawing & drawings by subject

744 Not assigned or no longer used

745 Decorative arts

746 Textile arts

747 Interior decoration

748 Glass

749 Furniture & accessories

750 Painting & paintings

751 Techniques, equipment, forms

752 Color

753 Symbolism, allegory, mythology, legend

754 Genre paintings

755 Religion & religious symbolism

756 Not assigned or no longer used

757 Human figures & their parts

758 Other subjects

759 Historical, areas, persons treatment

760 Graphic arts Printmaking & prints

761 Relief processes (Block printing)

762 Not assigned or no longer used

763 Lithographic (Planographic) processes

764 Chromolithography & serigraphy

765 Metal engraving

766 Mezzotinting & related processes

767 Etching & drypoint

768 Not assigned or no longer used

769 Prints

770 Photography & photographs

771 Techniques, equipment, materials

772 Metallic salt processes

773 Pigment processes of printing

774 Holography

775 - 777 Not assigned or no longer used

778 Fields & kinds of photography

779 Photographs

780 Music

781 General principles & musical forms

782 Vocal music

783 Music for single voices The voice

784 Instruments & Instrumental ensembles

785 Chamber music

786 Keyboard & other instruments

787 Stringed instruments (Chordophones)

788 Wind instruments (Aerophones)

789 Not assigned or no longer used

790 Recreational & performing arts

791 Public performances

792 Stage presentations

793 Indoor games & amusements

794 Indoor games of skill

795 Games of chance

796 Athletic & outdoor sports & games

797 Aquatic & air sports

798 Equestrian sports & animal racing

799 Fishing, hunting, shooting

800 Literature & rhetoric

801 Philosophy & theory

802 Miscellany

803 Dictionaries & encyclopedias

804 Not assigned or no longer used

805 Serial publications

806 Organizations

807 Education, research, related topics

808 Rhetoric & collections of literature

809 Literary history & criticism

810 American literature in English

811 Poetry

812 Drama

813 Fiction

814 Essays

815 Speeches

816 Letters

817 Satire & humor

818 Miscellaneous writings

819 Not assigned or no longer used

820 English & Old English literatures

821 English poetry

822 English drama

823 English fiction

824 English essays

825 English speeches

826 English letters

827 English satire & humor

828 English miscellaneous writings

829 Old English (Anglo-Saxon)

830 Literatures of Germanic languages

831 German poetry

832 German drama

833 German fiction

834 German essays

835 German speeches

836 German letters

837 German satire & humor

838 German miscellaneous writings

839 Other Germanic literatures

840 Literatures of Romance languages

841 French poetry

842 French drama

843 French fiction

844 French essays

845 French speeches

846 French letters

847 French satire & humor

848 French miscellaneous writings

849 Provencal & Catalan

850 Italian, Romanian, Rhaeto-Romanic

851 Italian poetry

852 Italian drama

853 Italian fiction

854 Italian essays

855 Italian speeches

856 Italian letters

857 Italian satire & humor

858 Italian miscellaneous writings

859 Romanian & Rhaeto-Romanic

860 Spanish & Portuguese literatures

861 Spanish poetry

862 Spanish drama

863 Spanish fiction

864 Spanish essays

865 Spanish speeches

866 Spanish letters

867 Spanish satire & humor

868 Spanish miscellaneous writings

869 Portuguese

870 Italic literatures Latin

871 Latin poetry

872 Latin dramatic poetry & drama

873 Latin epic poetry & fiction

874 Latin lyric poetry

875 Latin speeches

876 Latin letters

877 Latin satire & humor

878 Latin miscellaneous writings

879 Literatures of other Italic languages

880 Hellenic literatures Classical Greek

881 Classical Greek poetry

882 Classical Greek drama

883 Classical Greek epic poetry & fiction

884 Classical Greek lyric poetry

885 Classical Greek speeches

886 Classical Greek letters

887 Classical Greek satire & humor

888 Classical Greek miscellaneous writings

889 Modern Greek

890 Literatures of other languages

891 East Indo-European & Celtic

892 Afro-Asiatic literatures Semitic

893 Non-Semitic Afro-Asiatic literatures

894 Ural-Altaic, Paleosiberian, Dravidian

895 Literatures of East & Southeast Asia

896 African literatures

897 North American native literatures

898 South Anerican native literatures

899 Other literatures

900 Geography & history

901 Philosophy & theory

902 Miscellany

903 Dictionaries & encyclopedias

904 Collected accounts of events

905 Serial publications

906 Organizations & management

907 Education, research, related topics

908 With respect to kinds of persons

909 World history

910 Geography & travel

911 Historical geography

912 Graphic representations of earth

913 Ancient world

914 Europe

915 Asia

916 Africa

917 North America

918 South America

919 Other areas

920 Biography, genealogy, insignia

921 - 928 Not assigned or no longer used

929 Genealogy, names, insignia

930 History of ancient world

931 History of ancient world China

932 History of ancient world Egypt

933 History of ancient world Palestine

934 History of ancient world India

935 History of ancient world Mesopotamia & Iranian Plateau

936 History of ancient world Europe north & west of Italy

937 History of ancient world Italy & adjacent territories

938 History of ancient world Greece

939 History of ancient world Other parts of ancient world

940 General history of Europe

941 General history of Europe British Isles

942 General history of Europe England & Wales

943 General history of Europe Central Europe Germany

944 General history of Europe France & Monaco

945 General history of Europe Italian Peninsula & adjacent islands

946 General history of Europe Iberian Peninsula & adjacent islands

947 General history of Europe Eastern Europe Soviet Union

948 General history of Europe Northern Europe Scandinavia

949 General history of Europe Other parts of Europe

950 General history of Asia Far East

951 General history of Asia China & adjacent areas

952 General history of Asia Japan

953 General history of Asia Arabian Peninsula & adjacent areas

954 General history of Asia South Asia India

955 General history of Asia Iran

956 General history of Asia Middle East (Near East)

957 General history of Asia Siberia (Asiatic Russia)

958 General history of Asia Central Asia

959 General history of Asia Southeast Asia

960 General history of Africa

961 General history of Africa Tunisia & Libya

962 General history of Africa Egypt & Sudan

963 General history of Africa Ethiopia

964 General history of Africa Morocco & Canary Islands

965 General history of Africa Algeria

966 General history of Africa West Africa & offshore islands

967 General history of Africa Central Africa & offshore islands

968 General history of Africa Southern Africa

969 General history of Africa South Indian Ocean islands

970 General history of North America

971 General history of North America Canada

972 General history of North America Middle America Mexico

973 General history of North America United States

974 General history of North America Northeastern United States

975 General history of North America Southeastern United States

976 General history of North America South central United States

977 General history of North America North central United States

978 General history of North America Western United States

979 General history of North America Great Basin & Pacific Slope

980 General history of South America

981 General history of South America Brazil

982 General history of South America Argentina

983 General history of South America Chile

984 General history of South America Bolivia

985 General history of South America Peru

986 General history of South America Colombia & Ecuador

987 General history of South America Venezuela

988 General history of South America Guiana

989 General history of South America Paraguay & Uruguay

990 General history of other areas

991 Not assigned or no longer used

992 Not assigned or no longer used

993 General history of other areas New Zealand

994 General history of other areas Australia

995 General history of other areas Melanesia New Guinea

996 General history of other areas Other parts of Pacific Polynesia

997 General history of other areas Atlantic Ocean islands

998 General history of other areas Arctic islands & Antarctica

999 Extraterrestrial worlds

## Cultural bias of the DDC

DDC is commonly used in public and school libraries throughout the world. The schedule contains marked geographical biases derived from its 19th century origins: Northern Africa for instance occupies all of 961–965, the rest of the continent only 966–969. It is still more biased towards Christianity against other religions, the former covering all of 220–289, while all others get only 292–299 to share. Recent versions permit another religion to be placed in 220–289, with Christianity relegated to 298, but this is mainly used by libraries operated by non-Christian religious groups, especially Jewish ones. The DDC has also been criticized for its treatment of literature (800). Because primacy is given to language, national literatures get scattered. For example, Canadian literature in English is classed under English & Old English (820) literatures while Canadian literature in French is classed under French literatures (840). The only exception is for American literature (810); a reflection of the Anglo-American bias inherent in the system.

## DDC compared to other classification systems

DDC's numbers formed the basis of the more expressive but complex Universal Decimal Classification, which combines the basic Dewey numbers with selected punctuation marks (comma, colon, parentheses etc.). Despite its frequent revision, DDC is widely considered theoretically inferior to other more modern systems which make freer use of alphabetical characters to produce shorter classmarks for concepts of equal complexity, though it continues to offer a more expressive format than the Library of Congress Classification developed shortly afterward.

## Ownership

The Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and any copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. OCLC classifies new books and maintains the classification system. In September 2003, the OCLC sued the Library Hotel for trademark infringement. The settlement was that the OCLC would allow the Library Hotel to use the system in its hotel and marketing. In exchange, the Hotel would acknowledge the Center's ownership of the trademark and make a donation to a nonprofit organization promoting reading and literacy among children.