Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
DirecTV is a direct broadcast satellite (DBS) service that broadcasts digital satellite television and audio to households in the United States. DirecTV is owned by DirecTV Group, a subsidiary of News Corporation's Fox Entertainment Group.
DirecTV has long been a victim of an active piracy underground but has recently begun to crack down on illegal reception of its signals. On its anti-piracy website, DirecTV claims to have sued over 24,000 end users as of March 17, 2004, including celebrity O.J. Simpson. DirecTV bases their suits on purchase records of ISO-7816 Smart Card devices, which have the potential to rewrite DirecTV access cards. The Electronic Frontier Foundation has created a website to help those defendants who have been wrongfully sued by DirecTV.
DirecTV typically uses smaller 18-inch satellite dishes to receive its signals. Slightly larger, 18 × 24-inch oval antennas to access multi-satellites are becoming more common as DirecTV (as well as other DBS services) are attempting to squeeze more programming onto their growing systems, particularly local television network affiliates stations as well as hybrid systems that also receive broadband satellite Internet service.
DirecTV is often abbreviated as "DTV". However, DTV has recently been used to refer to digital television. Due to this conflict, and the fact that Echostar is often abbreviated "E*" ("E" for Echo, "*" for star), DirecTV is more commonly abbreviated as "D*".
DirecTV receivers (television set-top boxes) were originally referred to as "Digital Satellite Service", or DSS, so that services being broadcast by both DirecTV and USSB would appear to be received by generic equipment. In 1998, after the acquisition of USSB, an American court ruled that the term "DSS" was an already trademarked term that could not be used by DirecTV.
DirecTV offers standard television including local channels in most markets. Local channels are transmitted over terrestrial optical fiber networks to the Castle Rock Broadcast Center, in Castle Rock, Colorado, where they are uplinked.
DirecTV also offers high definition (HDTV); and a digital video recorder (DVR) service in partnership with TiVo. As of 2004 it has now more than 12.5 million customers in the U.S. and 1.5 million in Latin America. 2003 revenues were USD 10.1 billion.
|Satellite||Orbital slot||Launch date||Satellite type|
|DIRECTV-1||110°W||December 17, 1993||Hughes Electronics HS-601|
|DIRECTV-2||100.8°W||August 3, 1994||Hughes Electronics HS-601|
|DIRECTV-3 /Nimiq-3||91.1°W||June 10, 1995||Hughes Electronics HS-601|
|DIRECTV-1R||100.8°W||October 10, 1999||Hughes Electronics HS-601HP|
|DIRECTV-4S||101.2°W||November 27, 2001||Hughes Electronics HS-601HP|
|DIRECTV-5||72.5°W||May 7, 2002||Space Systems/Loral LS-1300|
|DIRECTV-6||109.8°W||March 8, 1997||Space Systems/Loral LS-1300|
|DIRECTV-7S||119°W||May 4, 2004||Space Systems/Loral LS-1300|
|DIRECTV-8||TBD||(est.) mid 2005||Space Systems/Loral LS-1300|
|DIRECTV-9S||TBD||(est.) early 2006||Space Systems/Loral LS-1300|
|SPACEWAY-1||TBD||(est.) 2005||Boeing BSS-702|
|SPACEWAY-2||TBD||(est.) 2005||Boeing BSS-702|
|DIRECTV-10||TBD||(est.) 2007||Boeing BSS-702|
|DIRECTV-11||TBD||(est.) 2007||Boeing BSS-702|
|DIRECTV-12||TBD||(est.) 2007td>||Boeing BSS-702|
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