Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
- This article is about the city in Ireland. For other uses of the name, see Dublin (disambiguation).
Dublin (Baile Átha Cliath in Irish) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Ireland, located near the midpoint of Ireland's east coast, at the mouth of the River Liffey and at the centre of the Dublin region1.
Dublin has a population of some 495,000 (CSO Census 2002) within the official city boundary, though the population of the Dublin metropolitan area is considerably higher, with the development and spread of suburbs and satellite towns continuing into the surrounding areas. The population of the city and region is in excess of 1,100,000 (CSO Census 2002); although even this figure does not accurately reflect the population of urban "Dublin", failing to account for largely integrated parts of north-east Kildare and conversely, undeveloped rural areas in north Fingal. Though there is no exact agreed definition of the "Greater Dublin" area it would be generally accepted as including all of Dublin city and region and parts of counties Wicklow, Kildare and Meath with the limits of the commuter belt stretching to a much greater distance.
The name Dublin is generally taken to derive from the Irish Dubh Linn ("the Black Pool"); there is some doubt about this - see Eblana below; the modern Irish-language name Baile Átha Cliath ("The City of the Ford of the Reed Hurdles") refers to the settlement which adjoined the Black Pool.
The earliest reference to Dublin is in the writings of Ptolemy around the year A.D. 140, who calls it Eblana. The name Eblana is close enough to Dublin (shared b, l and n) to cast doubt on the derivation of Dublin from Dubh Linn - the name could not have mutated from Dubh linn into Eblana and back to something very similar to the original. This suggests an alternative unknown derivation for the name Dublin.
The name Dublin "Dubh Linn" can also be found in Icelandic language, "djúp lind" ("deep pond").
Main article: History of Dublin
The Celtic settlement Áth Cliath ("hurdle ford") predates Dublin's establishment as the Viking settlement "Dubh Linn" in the ninth century. The modern city retains the anglicised Irish name of the latter and the Irish of the former. After the Norman invasion of Ireland Dublin displaced the Hill of Tara as Ireland's capital, much of the power centring on Dublin Castle until independence. From the 17th century the city expanded rapidly helped by the Wide Streets Commission. The Easter Rising of 1916 left the capital in an unstable situation and the Anglo-Irish War and Irish Civil War left the capital in ruins, with many of its finest buildings destroyed. The Irish Free State rebuilt much of the cities buildings but took no bold tasks such as remodelling, it moved parliament into Leinster House. After The Emergency Dublin remained a capital out of time, modernisation was slow, the 1960s saw change start. In recent years the infrastructure has been changed immensely. The Dublin Area Rapid Transit allowed the city to have a transport system suited for any modern European city.
- the Lordship of Ireland (1171-1541)
- the Kingdom of Ireland (1541-1800),
- the island as part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801-1922)
- the Irish Republic (1919-1922).
From 1922, following the partition of Ireland, it served as the capital of the Irish Free State (1922-1937). (Many of these states co-existed or competed within the same timeframe as rivals within either British or Irish constitutional theory.)
Dublin is a major cultural centre in Ireland. Temple Bar is an important place for night life and often people from the Britain and beyond visit for the weekend. The city also has a growing gay community, though homosexuality was only legalised in 1992 following a case in the European Court.
Dublin is the origin of some prominent artists and writers. Dubliners is a collection of short stories by James Joyce about incidents and characters typical of residents of the city in the early part of the 20th century. Ulysses, also by James Joyce, a novel set in Dublin, is full of topographical detail and is both acclaimed and controversial.
The National Print Museum of Ireland, the Irish Museum of Modern Art, the National Gallery of Ireland, the Hugh Lane Municipal Gallery and three centers of the National Museum of Ireland are located in Dublin.
- 1853 - Great Industrial Exhibition (1853)
- 1865 - International Exhibition of Arts and Manufactures (1865)
- 1874 - International Exhibition of Arts and Manufactures (1874)
Northside and Southside
Traditionally a north versus south division has existed within Dublin City (culturally viewed as being the area bound by the M50 motorway), with the dividing line provided by the River Liffey. The Northside (written as one word) is generally poorer and more working class, while the Southside is seen as middle and upper class and wealthier. This is also reflected by Dublin postal districts, with odd numbers being used for districts on the Northside, e.g: Raheny is in Dublin 5, and even numbers for ones on the Southside, e.g: Sandymount is in Dublin 4. This division dates back centuries, certainly to the point when the Earl of Kildare built his residence on the then less regarded Southside and was promptly followed by most other Irish peers, who when asked why he was building on the South Side, said "Where I go, fashion follows me". Paradoxically, while the Southside is wealthier, the President of Ireland's residence, Áras an Uachtaráin, is on the Northside, however its postal district is Dublin 8 which is a Southside number. The residence of the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Dublin, and his Church of Ireland counterparts until the 1920s, are also on the Northside, whilst one of Dublin's wealthiest suburbs, Howth is also on the Northside. The Southside also has many working-class suburbs, like Palmerstown, Crumlin, and Ballyfermot.
Dublin's middle class liberals are often described as Dublin 4, referring to one of the city's wealthiest postal districts, in which the studios of Radio Telifís Éireann, the national broadcaster are located, as are a number of respected schools, colleges and a university. The modern campus of University College Dublin is located on the boundary of Dublin 4 and Dublin 14. In actuality, the term Dublin 4 or the abbreviated D4 can refer to any middle class Dubliner from the Northside or the Southside or in many cases to simply an attitude that can be found anywhere in Ireland. Many politicians and political commentators live in Dublin 4, while Dublin 4 traditionally takes a strongly liberal stance in referenda on issues like abortion and divorce. The area is also associated with a distinctive accent (not actually particular to the district) which can be pleasing to some and painful to others.
Dublin contains the headquarters of almost all of Irelands sporting organisations. Croke Park, an 82,000 capacity stadium is the base of the Gaelic Athletic Association and hosts Gaelic Football and Hurling games during the summer months and on St. Patrick's Day. Lansdowne Road is a 48,000 capacity stadium owned by the Irish Rugby Football Union and is also the venue for home games of the Republic's national football (soccer) team. The National Aquatic Centre, located in Blanchardstown, is the first building to open in the Sports Campus Ireland. There are several race courses in the Dublin area including Shelbourne Park (Greyhound racing) and Leopardstown (Horse racing). There are also Basketball, Handball, Hockey and Athletics stadia within the city.
Radio Telifís Éireann is Ireland's national state broadcaster, and has its main offices and studios in Dublin. Fair City is the broadcasters' capital based soap, located in the fictional suburb of Carraigstown. TV3 the state's only private television broadcaster is also located in the capital, much of its programming is imported from the UK and the US. It aims to attract a young audience. The main infrastructure and offices of An Post and Eircom as well as Vodafone and mmO2 are located in the capital. The capital is also the location of important national newspapers and radio stations.
Dublin is the center of education in Ireland, having three universities. The University of Dublin is the oldest university in Ireland dating from the 16th Century. Its sole constituent college Trinity College, Dublin was established by Royal Charter under Elizabeth I. The National University of Ireland has its seat in Dublin as well as the location of the associated constitutent university of University College Dublin. Dublin City University is the most recent university created in Ireland and specialises in business, engineering, and science courses which are relevant to industry. It prides itself on its research record. The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland is an independent medical school located on Stephen's Green in the city center. The National University of Ireland, Maynooth, another constituent university of the NUI is located about 25km from Dublin.
Dublin Institute of Technology is a modern technical college and is the country's largest non-university third level institution; it specialises in technical subjects but also has unique arts courses. It is soon to move to the Grangegorman Campus. There are also smaller institutes of technology at Blanchardstown and Tallaght. The National College of Art and Design and Dun Laoghaire Institute of Art, Design and Technology support training and research in art, design and media technology.
There are also various other smaller specialised colleges, including private ones, in the city.
Dublin is the center of the transport system in Ireland (see Transportation in Ireland). Dublin Port is the country's most important sea port. Dublin Airport is the most important airport in the republic and the bulk of passenger traffic travels through the airport. Heuston Station and Connolly Station are the city's major railway stations, Heuston connects with the towns and cities in the south and west of the Republic while Connolly serves the Sligo and Dublin-Belfast routes.
Dublin is also the main hub of the country's road network. The M50 motorway, a semi-ring road runs around the south, west and north of the city, connecting the most important national primary routes in the State fan out from the capital to the regions. A toll of €1.80 applies on what is called the West-link , two adjacent concrete bridges that tower high above the River Liffey near the village of Lucan. Although construction has been ongoing for almost 20 years, the M50 has not been finished as of 2005. A court case regarding the destruction of medieval ruins at Carrickmines Castle has delayed the final completion of the route. The M50 currently has two traffic lanes going either direction but plans are afoot to increase that to three. The National Roads Authority also intends to increase capacity at many of the motorway's busiest junctions by building triple-grade interchanges instead.
To complete the ring road, an Eastern bypass is also proposed for the city of Dublin. The first half of this project is currently under construction, the Dublin Port Tunnel. It is scheduled to open in early 2006 and will mainly cater for heavy vehicles. When finished, Dublin City Council hopes to ban all unnecessary trucks and lorries from the city quays. The second half of the project would involve another tunneling project, linking Dublin Port to the road network on the southside of the city. Plans for this have never been formalised.
The capital is also surrounded by what have been termed by Dublin City Council as an inner and outer orbital route. The inner orbital route runs roughly around the heart of the Georgian city from St. Stephen's Green to Mountjoy Square and from the King's Inns to St. Patrick's Cathedral. The outer orbital route runs largely along the natural circle formed by Dublin's two canals, the Grand Canal and the Royal Canal, as well as the North and South Circular Roads.
The Dublin Area Rapid Transit system is the only electrified mainline railway in the State and serves stations at regular intervals on the railway line along the east coast. The first phase (Green Line) of the Luas light rail opened in June 2004 and it is hoped that it will usher a new era for south city and county Dublin; a second line (Red Line) connecting the two main train stations of Heuston and Connolly to the suburb of Tallaght has also opened for business. It had been hoped a metro system linking Dublin Airport to the city would be the next major infrastructural project but that now appears ever more unlikely. Plans to build a spur from the DART network to the airport and an interconnector system within the city centre area now appear more likely. Commuter lines to Kildare and Maynooth also service many of the suburbs of West Dublin.
The bulk of the public transport system in Dublin is made up of bus services operated by Bus Átha Cliath (Dublin Bus), which operates a network of nearly 200 daytime routes (identified by number and sometimes suffixed with a letter, e.g. 40, 40A, 40B, 40C, 40D) and 24 "Nitelink" overnight services which run on Monday to Saturday nights, which are identified by a number suffixed with "N" e.g. 40N). Apart from some tourist buses, all Dublin Bus' services are one-man operated, and daytime fares are determined by the number of fare stages travelled through - fares are payable in coin and only the exact fare is acceptable - if a passenger overpays, they are issued a "change ticket" which must be presented at the Dublin Bus office in O'Connell Street to be converted to cash. Alternatively, various pre-paid tickets and passes can be bought from Dublin Bus or its agents, and are processed by a validating machine on the right of the entrance door of the bus. Nitelink buses charge a flat fare regardless of the distance travelled.
The UGC cinema complex
Located North of the Liffey There is a vibrant night life in Dublin. The main spot for this is in the Temple Bar area south of the Liffey. This area has become synonimous with stag and hen parties and tourists. Many locals tend to steer clear of the area. There are a number of theatres within the city centre.
During the Celtic Tiger years of the mid to late nineties a large number of phamaceutical and information technology companies have located in Dublin and its suburbs. Microsoft's EMEA Operations Center are located in Sandyford Industrial Estate to the south of the city along with Xerox and Google. The large volume of computer industry in Dublin has led to it being referred to as the Silicon Valley of Europe. Intel and Hewlett-Packard have large manufacturing plants in Leixlip to the west of Dublin.
Dublin City is governed by Dublin City Council (formerly called Dublin Corporation) which is presided over by the Lord Mayor of Dublin, who is elected for a yearly term and resides in the Mansion House, which first became the residence of the Lord Mayor in 1715. Dublin City Council is based in two major buildings. Its headquarters is in Dublin City Hall, the former Royal Exchange taken over for city government use in the 1850s. Many of its administrative staff are based in the controversial Civic Offices, built on top of what had been one of the best preserved Viking sites in the world. The Corporation's (as it was then) decision to bulldoze the historic site proved one of the most controversial in modern Irish history, with thousands of people, including medieval historian Fr. F.X. Martin and Senator Mary Robinson (later President of Ireland) marching to try to stop the destruction. The destruction of the site on Wood Quay and the building of a set of offices known as The Bunkers (because of their ugly appearance) is generally seen as one of the most disastrous acts against Ireland's heritage since independence, with even Dublin Corporation admitting subsequently that it was ashamed of its action. Originally, there were to be four of these 'bunkers' built but only two were ever completed. Instead the river frontage is a less brutal office block designed by the firm Scott Tallon Walker. Completed in 1994, it boasts a leafy atrium and fine views from many of its offices. Council meetings take place in City Hall, one of Dublin's finest buildings and located on Dame Street. It was built to the winning design of Thomas Cooley. In an architectural competition, James Gandon was the runner-up with a scheme that many people favoured. Originally from England, Gandon is one of Ireland's favourite adopted sons and designed both the Four Courts and the Customs House, two of the city's most magnificent classical buildings.
The Dublin Region1
For centuries the city was administered by Dublin Corporation. The region containing Dublin, which was formerly known as County Dublin, covers an area of 922 km² and contains over a million inhabitants. In 1994 the County of Dublin (the area excluding the city) was sub-divided into three, each new area with county-level status and its own administration, namely:
Administration of the Dublin region as a whole is now co-ordinated by the Dublin Regional Authority.
The Republic of Ireland's National Parliament (called Oireachtas Éireann) consists of the President of Ireland and two houses, Dáil Éireann (the House of Representatives) and Seanad Éireann (Senate). All three are based in Dublin. The President of Ireland lives in Áras an Uachtaráin, the former residence of the Governor-General of the Irish Free State in the city's largest park, Phoenix Park. Both houses of the Oireachtas Éireann meet in Leinster House, a former ducal palace on the south side of the city. The building has been the home of Irish parliaments since the creation of the Irish Free State on December 6, 1922.The Irish Government is based in the Irish Government Buildings, a large building designed by Aston Webb, the architect who created the Edwardian facade to Buckingham Palace. Initially what is now Government Buildings was designed for use as the Royal College of Science, the last major building built by the British administration in Ireland. In 1921 the House of Commons of Southern Ireland met there. University College Dublin, which retained use of the central block of the building, However following the building of a new Engineering Faculty at the UCD campus in Belfield, the Government took entire control, and remodelled the entire building for governmental use.
1. Irish Statute Book: Local Government Act, 1991 (Regional Authorities) (Establishment) Order, 1993 - Dublin Region, "The area consisting of the (then) county borough of Dublin and the administrative counties of Dun Laoghaire-Rathdown, Fingal and South Dublin
- List of Ireland-related topics
- List of Dublin people
- Photographs of Dublin
- Áras an Uachtaráin
- Dublin Castle
- Ha'penny Bridge
- Old Irish Houses of Parliament
- Leinster House
- St. Mary's Pro-Cathedral
- Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church
- Dublin Chamber of Commerce
- General Post Office (Dublin)
- Spire of Dublin
- Irish statues and their nicknames
- Visitor Information for Dublin
- Maurice Craig, The Architecture of Ireland from the Earliest Times to 1880 (Batsford, Paperback edition 1989) (ISBN 0713425873)
- Frank McDonald, Saving the City: How to Halt the Destruction of Dublin (Tomar Publishing, 1989) (ISBN 1871793033) foreword by Bob Geldof
- Edward McParland, Public Architecture in Ireland 1680-1760 (Yale University Press, 2001) (ISBN 0300030641)
- Hanne Hem, Dubliners, An Anthropologist's Account, Oslo, 1994
- Dublin City Council
- Explanation of English and Irish language names of the city
- A Ten Year Strategy For Dublin City
- Dublin Spire
- Dublin City Collective - Online community for Dubliners.
- QueerID.com - Guide to Dublin's gay scene
- Irelandscape - Pictures of Dublin and other Irish Locations.
- Irish Architecture - Dublin
- Discussion of architecture and planning
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