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Duke of Norfolk
The Duke of Norfolk is the Premier Duke in the peerage of England, and also, as Earl of Arundel, the Premier Earl. The seat of the Duke of Norfolk is Arundel Castle in Sussex, although the title refers to the county of Norfolk.
He also holds the hereditary position of Earl Marshal, which has the duty of organizing state occasions such as the state opening of parliament. For the last five centuries, save some periods when it was under attainder, both the Dukedom and the Earl-Marshalship have been in the hands of the Howard family. According to The House of Lords Act 1999, due to his duties as Earl Marshal Norfolk is one of only two hereditary peers automatically admitted to the House of Lords, without being elected by the general body of hereditary peers.
The present Duke of Norfolk holds the several subsidiary titles:
- Earl of Arundel (created 1433),
- Earl of Surrey (1483),
- Earl of Norfolk (1644),
- Baron Beaumont (1309),
- Baron Maltravers (1330),
- Baron Fitzalan (1627)
- Baron Howard of Glossop (1869).
All titles are in the peerage of England, save for the Barony of Howard of Glossop which is in the peerage of the United Kingdom. The style Earl of Arundel and Surrey is used as a courtesy title by the Duke's eldest son.
Before the Dukes of Norfolk, there were the Bigod Earls of Norfolk, starting with Roger Bigod from Normandy (died 1107). Their male line ended with Roger Bigod, 5th Earl of Norfolk, who died without an heir in 1307, so their titles and estates reverted to the crown. Edward II then created his brother Thomas of Brotherton earl in 1312. It passed to his daughter Margaret, and then to her grandson Thomas Mowbray.
When King Richard II created Thomas Mowbray duke in 1397, he conferred upon him the estates and titles (including Earl Marshal) that had belonged to the Bigod earls. His elderly grandmother Margaret was still alive, and so at the same time she was created Duchess of Norfolk for life.
Thomas Mowbray was the 1st Duke of Norfolk, but John Mowbray, the 4th duke, died without male issue in 1476 (his only surviving child being the 3-year-old Anne), and there was no duke until John Howard (son of Thomas Mowbray's elder daughter Margaret) was created 1st Duke of Norfolk in 1483. These are the men who have held the title of Duke of Norfolk:
Dukes of Norfolk, first Creation (1397)
- Thomas Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk (1365-1399) (forfeit 1399)
- John Mowbray, 2nd Duke of Norfolk (1392-1432) (restored 1425)
- John Mowbray, 3rd Duke of Norfolk (1415-1461)
- John Mowbray, 4th Duke of Norfolk (1444-1476)
Dukes of Norfolk, second Creation (1477)
Dukes of Norfolk, third Creation (1483)
- John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk (1430-1485) (forfeit 1485)
- Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk (1443-1524) (restored 1514)
- Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk (1473-1554) (forfeit 1547, restored 1553)
- Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk (1536-1572) (forfeit 1572)
- Thomas Howard, 5th Duke of Norfolk (1627-1677) (restored 1660)
- Henry Howard, 6th Duke of Norfolk (1628-1684)
- Henry Howard, 7th Duke of Norfolk (1655-1701)
- Thomas Howard, 8th Duke of Norfolk (1683-1732)
- Edward Howard, 9th Duke of Norfolk (1685-1777)
- Charles Howard, 10th Duke of Norfolk (1720-1786)
- Charles Howard, 11th Duke of Norfolk (1746-1815)
- Bernard Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 12th Duke of Norfolk (1765-1842)
- Henry Charles Fitzalan-Howard, 13th Duke of Norfolk (1791-1856)
- Henry Granville Fitzalan-Howard, 14th Duke of Norfolk (1815-1860)
- Henry Fitzalan-Howard, 15th Duke of Norfolk (1847-1917)
- Bernard Marmaduke Fitzalan-Howard, 16th Duke of Norfolk (1908-1975)
- Miles Francis Stapleton Fitzalan-Howard, 17th Duke of Norfolk (1915-2002)
- Edward William Fitzalan-Howard, 18th Duke of Norfolk (b. 1956)
Heir Apparent: Henry Miles Fitzalan-Howard, Earl of Arundel and Surrey (born 1987)
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