Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Eight ball is a billiards game played with a cue ball and 15 billiard balls on a pool table with 6 pockets. There are eight solid-colored balls numbered 1 through 8, seven striped balls numbered 9 through 15, and a solid white cue ball.
The balls are always coloured as follows:
- 1 and 9 - yellow
- 2 and 10 - blue
- 3 and 11 - red
- 4 and 12 - purple
- 5 and 13 - orange
- 6 and 14 - green
- 7 and 15 - brown
- 8 - black
- cue - white.
Two persons or two teams play against each other. One plays balls 1-7, the solid balls, the other balls 9-15, the striped ones. Ball 8, though colored solid, is not considered one of the solid balls, as it's the final objective for both sides. Each side on its turn hits the cue ball in order to hit one of their balls and to sink one of their balls in a pocket of the table. If they succeed, they may play again. If no balls are pocketed, then the shooting player's turn is forfeited to the opposition.
In addition, if no balls are legally pocketed during the shooting player's turn, in order to not incur a foul and give the opposing team more of an advantage on their next turn at the table, the shooting player must force at least one ball on the table to make contact with one of the table's rails. If no balls are pocketed, or sent to contact a rail, it is a foul. If a player has sunk all of his or her balls, the player must sink the black 8 in order to win the game. If the black 8 is sunk earlier, the player loses. Eight Ball is the most popular billiards game in the United States.
Online pool is also proving to be very popular.
Lines and points on the table
Imagine the pool table divided into two equal halves the long way by an imaginary line (called the "long string"). Also imagine two lines crossways to the long string one quarter of the way from each end. These are called the "head string" and "foot string". The intersection of the long and head strings is called the "head spot", and the intersection of the long and foot strings is called the "foot spot".
Start of the game
To start the game, the colored balls are placed in a triangle, called a "rack." The base of the rack is parallel to the short end of the pool table and positioned so the ball in the tip of the rack is located on the head spot. The balls in the rack are pressed into contact with the head ball, and remain in contact after the rack is removed. The cue ball is placed anywhere the breaker desires between the foot string and its nearest short side (that is, the quarter of the table farthest from the rack), an area known as the "kitchen."
One person is chosen to shoot first ("break" the balls apart; note that this is a different definition of the word "break" than in other billiards games, notably snooker) by any number of methods: flip of a coin, loser of last game breaks, winner of last game breaks, "lag", etc. If the shooter who breaks fails to make a legal break (usually defined as at least four balls hitting cushions) then the opponent can either re-rack and break, or play from the current position.
If the breaker pockets a ball, it is still the same player's turn. Area of substantial disagreement in rules: say the breaker pockets the seven ball (a solid). Some people play that the breaker now has solids as that group. Others (including the BCA) say that the table is still "open" until someone legally pockets a ball.
The players now take turns. The turn is over if a player makes a fault or fails to pocket one of the object balls.
When one player commits a fault, the other player gets "ball in hand", that is, may place the cue ball. Area of substantial disagreement in rules: some (including the BCA) play that (after the break) the cueball may be placed anywhere, and shoot at anything. Others play that the person with ball in hand may only place the cue ball in the "kitchen", and must shoot out of the "kitchen" before hitting any ball (that is, they may not shoot at a ball inside the "kitchen" directly). However, if all their balls are inside the "kitchen", they can request that the one closest to the head string be placed on the head spot. Under BCA rules, if the cue ball is pocketed on the break, the cue ball must be placed in the "kitchen" and shot out.
Other areas of substantial disagreement in rules:
- Whether (and how) jumping the cue ball is a fault
- Whether you lose if you:
- Shoot at the eight ball and miss
- Shoot at the eight ball, pocket the cue ball, but don't pocket the eight ball
- Whether the players have to announce ball and pocket
- Whether pocketing the eight ball on the break is a win (common rule in the US) or a loss (common rule in the UK and elsewhere)
Possible set of rules
Note: The rules for this game may be the most contested of any billiard game; MAKE SURE that you and your opponent agree on the rules before playing. Many people and leagues in the USA use the Billiard Congress of America (BCA) rules as their standard. The place where you are playing may also have their own house rules, though you should still consult your opponent on whether or not to play by them.
One possible set of rules follows, but it doesn't exactly match the BCA rules:
- the player has legally pocketed the eight ball
- the player plays the eight ball in a fault situation.
- the player pockets the eight ball while he still has object balls in his group on the table
- the player pockets the eight ball in the same shot as the last object ball in his group
- the player has jumped the eight ball off the table
Possible fault situations:
- the player does not execute a legal stroke
- the player pockets the cue ball
- the player does not have at least one foot on the floor
- the player shoots the cue ball before all other balls have come to a complete stop
- the player hits the cue ball more than once during a shot
- the player touches the cue ball with something other than the tip of his cue
- the player touches any other ball
A legal stroke is defined as:
- the player hits the cue ball, then the cue ball hits one of the balls of that player's group of balls, then either the player pockets one of the player's own balls (not necessarily the one hit) or any ball hits a cushion.
Differences between UK and US
In the United Kingdom version of pool or Eight Ball, plain unnumbered red balls and yellow balls often replace the solid and striped balls. The black ball, however, still bears a number eight. Another difference is that the UK table has pockets just larger than the balls, whereas the American table has pockets significantly larger.
After a foul stroke in the UK, the offending player will miss a turn - known as the "two shots" rule. A common exception to this is "one shot on the black", that is a player who has only the black left to pot does not get this advantage.
Standardised Rules (World 8 Ball rules)
A standardised version of pool rules for professional competitions have been established. These are the rules played in most 8-ball tournaments on television. These rules are often played in amateur leagues as well. World Rules creates differences to encourage quick play and promote skill by making playing a snooker (hook) more difficult and making covering pockets less advantageous.
Some examples of these differences would be -
On all shots, the player must:- 1. Cause the Cue Ball's initial contact with a ball to be with a ball "On", AND THEN 2. Pot a ball "On" OR Cause the Cue Ball or any Object Ball to contact a cushion.
This means that an easy snooker cannot always be played.
In some versions of 8 ball purposefully commiting a foul (by potting an opponents ball) is not allowed. World 8 ball rules permits this. Furthermore, the cue ball (white ball) cannot be moved after a foul is committed. This means that pocketing an opponents ball sometimes means that no significant advantage is given to the opposing player. This depends on where the cue ball lies after the shot is played. Care must be taken though as playing a foul shot resulting in a snooker results in a "foul snooker". The opposing player can then play a free ball from the baulk.
For further explanations of the defintions of "snooker", "fouls", "on", "Object ball" and "free ball" please visit the sites above.
- Play 8-Ball Pool Online
- Official Rules for Eight-Ball from the BCA
- The English Pool Association website. Official governing body for pool in England
- Forum thread on Eight Ball
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