Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
| National motto: Dios, Unión, Libertad|
(Spanish: God, Union, Liberty)
|Largest City||San Salvador|
- % water
| Ranked 148th |
|| Ranked 97th
| GDP (PPP)
|| Ranked 84th
|Currency||US dollar ($) and Salvadoran colon|
|Time zone||UTC -6|
|Independence|| From Spain: September 15,1821|
|National anthem||Saludemos la Patria orgullosos|
Main articles: History of El Salvador
El Salvador achieved independence from Spain in 1821 and from the Central American Federation in 1842. Fought the so-called Football War with Honduras in 1969. A 12-year civil war, which cost the lives of some 75,000 people, was brought to a close in 1992 when the government and leftist rebels signed a treaty that provided for military and political reforms.
Main article: Politics of El Salvador
Main article: Geography of El Salvador
It is the smallest Central American country and the only one without a coastline on Caribbean Sea. Located between Guatemala and Honduras. It's known as the "Land of the volcanoes".
The most important cities are:
The country is divided into 14 departments.
Main article: Economy of El Salvador
El Salvador's poor economy suffers from a weak tax collection system, factory closings, the aftermath of Hurricane Mitch, and low world coffee prices. On the bright side, in recent years inflation has fallen to single digit levels, and total exports have grown substantially. The substantial trade deficit has been offset by remittances from the large number of Salvadorans living abroad who fled military repression and economic stagnation, and from external aid.
Main article: Demographics of El Salvador
Maya Lenca Culture
The Eastern region of El Salvador was first inhabited by the Lenca tribes which also dominated the southern part of Choluteca Honduras. Unlike the Pipil of the Central and Western region, who are from Nahuatl/Aztec descent, the Eastern people are Maya. Their carvings at the Corinto Rock Shelter have been carbon dated at 15,000 B.C. (National Geographic Society). During the deadly indigenous uprisings of the 1800's, most indigenous nobles were executed and the constitution was reformed to forbid noble titles, but the noble family of the East and their traditions quietly survived. In 1988, the surviving elder and grandmother sponsored the documentation of her language, oral tradition and the establishment of an indigenous council. In 1993, during the UN-International Year of the Indigenous People, the Maya Lenca community revived their dynasty, proclaiming Mrs. B. Francisca Guevara Romero as their Royal Elder.
The people of El Salvador have direct genetic and cultural link to the Maya, Aztec and Iberian cultures and this is reflected in their music, art, crafts, spirituality and world view. The orla tradition of the people of the Eastern El Salvador organizes their history in the following order (taken from "Historia de la Tradicion Oral Lenca")Chevez, 1990.
IT ALL BEGAN IN THE ANCIENT PERIOD
- -The creation of the first creature of corn (The story of Big Mama and the Cave of Corinto)
- -The house of Oxwitic swallowed by the sea.
- -The house of the three lineages
- -The princely house of Balam Colop and the Jaguar people (Lencas)
Lenca Rulers of the period 900 B.C (in the order of the recital of the oral tradition).
- Jax-ju Comizahual I, princess of Torolag, Patroness of all tribes. Wife of prince Gualacolop-ti.
- Comizahual II, grand daughter of the nobles of Torolag, Monarch and founder of the Lenca kingdom of Managuara Najochan. (Eastern and Insular region of El Salvador and southern Honduras). Her court was made by all chiefs and lords of all villages who met in a gathering named “Guancasco”.
- Naju Kuta Balam I, son of Comizahual II, crown prince of Uxulvotan (Usulutan) his father was a warrior chief from the northern lands.
- Texcunic Colop I, son of Comizahual II , crown prince of Kelepa beside Mayucuayquin river. This was the first monarch who created an army for defence.
- Kilimajax Kanul I, son of Comizahual II, crown prince of managuara (El Encantado) and the Islands. Founder of the lakeside villages of de Makigue y Olomik (Olomega). He established markets at Managuara (higueral) where merchants came to trade goods.
Period 900 A.D, Arrival of the nobles, refugees from Copan.
- Senor de la piedra del rayo (Lord of the flint of the Thunder ), 13th Monarch of the Eagle people who arrived to Lenca land and established the house of Sesoli.
- Ixinol Mek I (the warrior), daughter of Lord of the Flint who was the prince of Cacaguatique. He established an army to defend the Lencas from constant attacks by the Cholutecan tribe. In the last battle the princess invaded the Cholutecans and exterminated their royal family, conquering them and bringing them under the Lenca crown. She expanded the kingdom by recreating the journey of her ancestors. On their return, they brought brethren who were left behind during their exodus. Her children were the rulers of the houses of Perquin y Cacaopera.
- Comizahual III, daughter of Kilimajax Kanul and the princess of Intipuca, Monarch of the Lencas, established the industry of masonery and the making of grinding stones at Queiquin (San Alejo). She established a royal decree that regulated the creation of settlements no more than a day of walking distance from each other.
Period 1400’s A.D
- Itanaj Kanul I, Son of Comizahual III and Chikaran Ilalauas of Guarrapuca, was monarch of the lencas and fought against the uprising of the Chaparastiques, who invaded and burnt the village of Sesori, creating an intergenerational rivalry.
- Asisilcan Nachan I, son of Atonim Ulap “the wiaver” established peace with the Choluteca tribe and celebrated the peace pact of Nacaome, dnaming a city “Nacaome” (union of two races)
Period 1500’s during the Spanish invasion by Montejo and Luis de Moscoso.
- Antu Silan Ulap I, daughter of Asisilcan Nachan I y Lady of Uluazapa, Monarch of the Lencas. Her kingdom saw the invasion headed by Luis de Moscoso. She organized the Lenca resistance. She was taken by the elders to a safe heaven called “Naymalap” (El Tihuilotal), where she gave birth to twins, a baby girl and a baby boy.
- 8 Atonim Silan I, daughter of princess Antu Silan Ulap I and prince Salaiki Kanul from Sesori. They had two sons and a daughter who lived in the mountains near the lake Olomega and Maquigue, in this way they escaped the hunters.
Inactive period (1500’s to 1900) during which time the family members only married among cousins. This has been an ancient practice among royalty in Maya nobility.
- Reymundo Romero I, son of the noble family of Sesori Cacahuatique, maintained his status as a local leader and organized an armed militia in support of Francisco Morazan and Gerardo Barrios. He also organized militias during the overthrow of the republic, destroying fences, burning churches in the east before joining forces to Aquino. Reymundo’s lands became part of the current departments of San Miguel, La Union, Morazan and Usulutan.
- Margarita Romero I, first in line to the noble title of the house of Sesori, she married Gabriel Guevara, and moved to Managuara (Loma Larga). They both are buried at El Nance Dulce cemetery.
- Francisca Guevara Romero I, Daughter of Margarita, first in line to the two noble tittles of the house of Sesori Cacahuatique and the Lencas of Managuara. She married Juan Shevez, a half French half indigenous from Uluazapa.
- Jose Benito Chevez Romero I, son of Francisca and Juan, married Maria Angela Fuentes Larios, the granddaughter of a migrant family from Malaga Spain. Benito had four daughters and one son. He studied “community development at the “El Castano Rural University.” In 1980 the government declared the university as a bastion of communism and all students were listed as enemies of the state. Benito went into hiding for many years while many of his class mates were murdered by the death squads.
- Leonel Antonio Chevez I, son of Jose Benito, next in line to the noble title of both houses. He was raised and educated by Francisca, under her direction he was trained in Maya Medicine, community development and many other areas of expertise which were needed during the civil war (1980-1992). He went into exile to Australia in July 1996 and in 1997, at the small St. Mary’s Chapel, West End Brisbane, he was proclaimed the royal successor in exile.
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