Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
The province of Isfahan covers an area of approximately 107,027 square kilometers and is situated in the center of Iran. To its north, stand the Markazi (Central) Province and the provinces of Qom and Semnan. In the south, it is within the limits of the provinces of Fars, Kohkiluyeh and Booyer Ahmad. Eastwards, it is in the neighborhood of the provinces of Khorasan and Yazd. Whereas, in the west it has common borders with the provinces of Lurestan and Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiyari.
The city of Esfahan is the provincial capital; and the townships of this province are as follows: Aran, Bidgol , Ardestan , Isfahan, Barkhovar and Meymeh , Khomeini Shahr , Khansar , Semirom , Shahr-e-Hana , Faridan , Fereidune Shahr , Falavarjan , Kashan, Golpayegan, Lanjan , Mobarakeh , Nain, Najaf Abad , Shahreza and Natanz; 18 townships,38 counties, 67 cities, and 2470 villages in all. According to the census in the year 2000, the population of the province was 3,923,255 of which approximately 74.3% were urban residents and 25.7 % resided in the rural areas. The literacy rate was 87 percent.
The province experiences a moderate and dry climate on the whole, ranging between 40.6° C max, and 10.6°C min. on a cold day in the winter season. The average annual temperature has been recorded as 16.7° C. and the annual rainfall on an average has been reported as 116.9 millimeters. The city of Isfahan however experiences an excellent climate, with four distinct seasons.
History and Culture
Historians have recorded Espahan, Sepahan or Isfahan initially as a defense and military base. The security and protection of the gradually increasing castles and fortifications, thereby, would provide the protection of residents nearby, therefore leading to the growth of large settlements nearby. These historical castles were Atashgah, Sarooyieh, Tabarok, Kohan Dej, and Gard Dej to name a few. The oldest of these is Ghal'eh Sefeed and the grounds at Tamijan from prehistoric times.
During the 17th and 18th centuries, Isfahan province enjoyed high standards of prosperity as it became the capital of Safavid Persia. While the city of Isfahan was their seat of monarchy, Kashan was their place of vacation and leisure.
Isfahan province encompasses various sects today. The majority of the people in the province are Persian speakers, but Bakhtiaris, Armenians, Hebrews and to a certain extent Azari or Turks also reside in the province. The official language of the province is Persian, though the minorities abide by their own language such as Hebrew, Turkish or Lori. Isfahan province is noted for its reputed personalities such as writers, poets and other imminent figures who have been born and brought up or have lived in this territory.
Isfahan province today
Isfahan province has many centers of attration aside from the city of Isfahan itself. Kashan for example is a well worth destination for many tourists, as are Nain, where Iran's oldest mosque still stands, and Qamsar where roseflower is naturally made every year.
Isfahan province is an industrial center of Iran. Rapid development of the industrial sector in this province has made it one of the greatest, if not the greatest industrial center in the country, close to surpassing Tehran.
The most important industries of Isfahan are in the areas of: steel factory and mill refineries, defensive industries, medical manufacturing, Polyacril factories, textile and weaving industries, and handicraft sites among others.
The major universities of Isfahan province are:
- Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
- Isfahan University of Technology
- Kashan University of Medical Sciences
- University of Isfahan
- University of Kashan
- Isfahan University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences
- Islamic Azad University of Isfahan
- Islamic Azad University of Khomeinishahr
- Islamic Azad University of Khorasgan
- Islamic Azad University of Shareza
- Azad University of Shahr e Majlesi
- Islamic Azad University of Felavarjan
- Islamic Azad University of Mobarakeh
- Islamic Azad University of Naeen
- Islamic Azad University of Najaf Abad
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