Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
The main effect of extrusion is that the magma can cool much more quickly in the open air, and there is little time for the growth of crystals. Often, a residual portion of the matrix fails to crystallize at all, instead becoming an interstitial glass.
If the magma contains free gas, which is common, then it may cool with large and small vesicles (bubble-shaped cavities) or the rock may be porous.
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