Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
A file is a hand tool consisting of a steel shaft whose surface is cut with sharp parallel ridges made by a chisel before the file is hardened. It is used to smooth or cut materials by abrasion. The tool is usually fitted in a handle.
Files are classified according to several attributes. One is the cross-section of the shaft, which may be flat, round, half-round, square or triangular. Another is the size of the ridges, which can range from rough, coarse and bastard (meaning intermediate) to second-cut, smooth and dead smooth. A single-cut or mill file has one set of parallel ridges, while a cross-cut or double-cut file has a second set at an angle to the first. In Swiss-pattern files the teeth are cut at a shallower angle.
The rasp is a related, but different, hand tool that has sharp bumps on its surface rather than straight ridges.
The contents of this article is licensed from www.wikipedia.org under the GNU Free Documentation License. Click here to see the transparent copy and copyright details