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Fischer indole synthesis
The Fischer indole synthesis is a chemical synthesis of the aromatic heterocycle indole from a (substituted) phenylhydrazine and an aldehyde or ketone under acidic conditions. The synthesis was discovered in 1883 by Hermann Emil Fischer. Today antimigraine drugs of the triptan class are often synthesized by this method.
On reaction of a (substituted) phenylhydrazine with an aldehyde or ketone a phenylhydrazone forms and isomerizes into the respective enamine (or 'ene-hydrazine'). After protonation a cyclic rearrangement occurs, involving a nucleophilic aromatic SNAr attack of the phenyl ring. The resulting aniline/imine forms a cyclic aminoacetal (or aminal) under acid catalysis that splits off NH3, resulting in the energetically favorable aromatic indole system.
- Japp-Klingemann indole synthesis
- Abramovitch-Shapiro tryptamine synthesis
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