Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
For Your Eyes Only
For Your Eyes Only is a collection of James Bond short stories by Ian Fleming, first published in 1960. The title story of the collection lent its name to the twelfth James Bond film, which was released in 1981 and was the fifth film to star Roger Moore as the suave and sophisticated British Secret Service agent. The film, produced by Albert R. Broccoli and directed by John Glen, was an EON Productions / United Artists movie and adapted both "For Your Eyes Only" and "Risico" from this collection, as well as part of the novel Live and Let Die.
Other stories from this collection also provided source material for later Bond movies (see below).
The title of the collection is derived from a piece of jargon often used in government circles with regards to secret documents. An "Eyes Only" notification indicates either a) the information contained is for the knowledge of authorized readers only, b) information contained is not to be discussed with anyone, or c) all of the above.
The short story collection
For Your Eyes Only, marked a change of pace for Ian Fleming, who previously had written only full-length novels featuring his character, James Bond. In the late 50's CBS made an offer to Fleming to write 32 episodes over a two year period for a telvision show based on the James Bond character. This deal came about after the success of the 1954 television episode adaptation of Casino Royale on the CBS television series Climax!. Fleming agreed to the deal and began to write three outlines for the series, however, CBS later dropped the idea. In 1959 Fleming gathered his outlines and novelized them for an anthology he originally titled "The Rough With The Smooth". The title was changed for publication to For Your Eyes Only and was additionally published with the subtitle of "Five Secret Occasions in the Life of James Bond". In America the subtitle was changed to "Five Secret Exploits of James Bond". In later editions, the subtitle was dropped.
The book contains five short stories:
- 1 "From a View to a Kill"
- 2 "For Your Eyes Only"
- 3 "Quantum of Solace"
- 4 "Risico"
- 5 "The Hildebrand Rarity"
Out of the five short stories included in the book, two were added in addition to the outlines Fleming had previously written for the proposed television series. The first, "The Hildebrand Rarity" was first published in Playboy in 1960. It provided the character of Milton Krest for the 1989 Bond film Licence to Kill. The second story, "Quantum of Solace" was an experimental piece Fleming had previously written for Cosmopolitan magazine. The short story actually has no secret agent elements; that, combined with a title that was likely to confuse audiences, means that it is the only Ian Fleming story that has never to date been referenced in any way by the Bond movie series.
The remaining three stories were, as previously stated, written as television scripts. The story "For Your Eyes Only" was originally to be titled "Man's Work" and later "Death Leaves an Echo". Along with "Risico" (originally spelled "Risiko") "For Your Eyes Only" was adapted closely for the 1981 film version of the same name.
"From A View to a Kill"
"From a View to a Kill" sees Bond investigating the murder of a dispatch-rider from SHAPE (central command of NATO in Europe located in Versailles) to his base, Station F, in Saint-Germain, France. Since Bond was already in Paris, M sends Bond to assist in the investigation in any way he can. To unravel the mystery Bond disguises himself as a dispatch-rider and follows the same journey as the previous rider to Station F. As expected, the assassin attempts to kill Bond, however, Bond is ready and ends up killing the assassin.
The title is taken from a version of the words to a traditional hunting song "D'ye ken John Peel?": "From a find to a check, from a check to a view,/ From a view to a kill in the morning".
"For Your Eyes Only"
"For Your Eyes Only" begins with the murder of a Jamaican couple that had refused to sell their land to Major Gonzales, a Cuban killer hired by Herr von Hammerstein. This couple, the Havelocks, would turn out to be close friends of M, who served as the groom's best man during their wedding in 1925. M subsequently gives Bond a voluntary assignment, "off-book" from sanctioned MI6 duties, to sneak into the United States via Canada, track down Herr von Hammerstein, and prevent further harm to the Havelocks's only daughter by any means necessary. When Bond arrives on the scene, however, he finds the Havelocks' daughter, Judy, has arrived there first and intends to carry out her own mission of revenge.
"Quantum of Solace"
"Quantum of Solace" was the first of these stories to be published, appearing in the May 1959 issue of Cosmopolitan magazine. It is not a spy story, and Bond appears only in the background. Told in the style of W. Somerset Maugham, the tale has Bond attending a boring dinner party with a group of rich, snobbish people he cannot stand. He listens as the Governor of Nassau tells him a harrowing tale about a relationship between a former employee of the Governor's, Phillip Masters, and an air hostess named Rhoda Llewellyn. After meeting aboard a flight to London they eventually marry, however, after a time Rhoda becomes unhappy and begins a long open affair with a golf pro. After a vacation to London during which Rhoda's affair ended, Masters returns and decides to end their marriage, although they would continue to appear as a happy couple in public for the sake of his job. While the story may not be full of adventure as previous Fleming tales, the point of the story was to show that Bond's adventures pales in reality to real-life drama. As the story closes, Bond reflects on the story the Governor told and comes to the conclusion that his current mission is dull and unexciting in comparison. The story is also an eye-opener for Bond who had previously before hearing the tale passed judgment on Rhoda at the party.
In "Risico" James Bond is sent by M to investigate a drug smuggling operation based out of Italy that is pumping narcotics into England. M instructs Bond to get in touch with a CIA informant, Kristatos, who in turn tells Bond that a man named Enrico Colombo is behind the racket. When Bond sets out to find more information on Colombo, he is captured by him and brought aboard Colombo's ship, the Colombina. While in captivity Colombo informs Bond that Kristatos is actually the one in charge of the drug smuggling operation and that he is being backed by the Russians. On the next day, the Colombina arrives at Santa Maria, where men are loading another shipment. Bond, Colombo, and the crew of the Colombina attack the warehouse and discover Kristatos inside. While trying to escape, Kristatos is shot by Bond.
"The Hildebrand Rarity"
"The Hildebrand Rarity" also predated the publication of the collection, appearing first in the March 1960 issue of Playboy. In this adventure, Bond is on holiday in the Seychelles Islands with his friend, Fidele Barbey. Through Barbey, Bond meets an uncouth millionaire named Milton Krest who has offered the two the job of aiding him in the search for a rare fish named "The Hildebrand Rarity". After agreeing to help, the three as well as Mrs. Elizabeth Krest set off aboard the Wavekrest in search of the fish. During the journey Bond learns that Mr. Krest verbally and physically abuses everyone around him, specifically his wife whom he punishes with the use of a sting ray tail he dubbs "The Corrector". After finding the Hildrebrand Rarity, the party returns to the Wavekrest and returns to port. Along the way Krest gets drunk and insults Bond and Barbey and also schedules an appointment for his wife with the "The Corrector". During the same night Bond hears Mr. Krest choking, afterwhich Bond discoves Krest has been murdered and the rare fish was stuffed into his mouth. So as not to be entangled in an investigation for the murder of Krest, Bond throws him overboard and cleans up scene of the crime. The following day after the Wavekrest has reached port no one knows what had happened to Mr. Krest and all presume he fell overboard. Bond investigates both Barbey and Mrs. Krest and finally comes to the conclusion that Mrs. Krest had murdered him in an act of revenge for the way in which Milton Krest had treated her, although she never admits to commiting the crime and Bond never asks.
Comic strip adaptations
Four of the five short stories in the anthology For Your Eyes Only have been adapted into comic strips. All of them were published in the British newspaper, the Evening Standard. The first, "Risico" ran from April 3 to June 24, 1961, followed by "From a View to a Kill", June 25 to September 9, 1961 and "For Your Eyes Only", which was published from September 11 to December 9, 1961. All three stories were adapted by Henry Gummidge and illustrated by John McClusky and were reprinted in 2004 by Titan Books.
The fourth short story, "The Hildebrand Rarity" was adapted and published from May 29 to December 16, 1967, six years after the comic strip versions of other stories in the original collection. "The Hildebrand Rarity" was adapted by Jim Lawrence and illustrated by Yaroslav Horak . This adaptation was reprinted by Titan Books in the early 1990s.
"Quantum of Solace" is one of only three Ian Fleming James Bond stories that has never been adapted as a comic strip.
The film is notable for the pre-credit sequence which sees what is believed to be the final comeuppance of Ernst Stavro Blofeld, Bond's enemy in four previous films (although he is deliberately not named due to copyright issues). This was because of attempts by film producer Kevin McClory to produce a rival Bond film based on his ownership of the screen rights to the book of Thunderball, including the copyright on Blofeld, and the producers wished to show that the Bond films did not need Blofeld. Two years later McClory's effort would hit the screens as Never Say Never Again but it does not fit the EON films' continuity. Recently MGM was able to gain the distribution rights of Never Say Never Again.
The film focuses on the recovery of the vital Automatic Targeting and Attack Communicator (ATAC), lost in the Ionian Sea when the British spy ship St Georges is sunk by an old mine hauled up in its fishing nets. The ATAC system is used by the Ministry of Defence to communicate and co-ordinate the Royal Navy's fleet of Polaris submarines. Sir Timothy Havelock, a marine archaeologist and MI6 agent, and his wife are murdered by a Cuban hitman, Hector Gonzales, while he is searching for the wreck of the St Georges. Bond is sent after Gonzales to find out who hired him, but is beaten to it by Havelock's daughter, Melina, who kills him before Bond can find out. After identifying a man in Gonzales' estate who appeared to be paying him, Bond is led to a well connected Greek businessman and intelligence informant, Aris Kristatos, who tells Bond that the man he saw is employed by Milos Columbo, a Greek smuggler. However, when Bond confronts Columbo, it emerges that Kristatos is actually in the employ of the KGB to recover the ATAC, and had set up Columbo as the villain as he knew too much about Kirstatos' KGB leanings. Bond is aided in his pursuit of Kristatos and the ATAC by Melina and Columbo. In the films climax, Bond throws the ATAC system over a cliff rather than hand it to the KGB chief General Gogol, with the quip "That's dťtente, comrade. I don't have it, you don't have it."
After the ever-more outlandish plots of The Spy Who Loved Me and Moonraker - the latter film literally taking Bond out of this world - it was decided that the James Bond series needed to return to reality, and FYEO goes back to the more basic style of Dr. No and From Russia With Love. One of the most famous sequences of the film is when Bond's venerable Lotus Esprit is destroyed and is forced to make his escape in a CitroŽn 2CV, which was considered symbolic of Bond turning away from the more extreme gadgets of the past. The reaction to this change of pace was generally favorable, although the film does not rank among the top box office moneymakers in the series. Today it is often cited as one of the strongest films of the series and is usually considered a contender alongside Spy Who Loved Me as Moore's best Bond film.
Cast & characters
- James Bond - Roger Moore
- Miss Moneypenny - Lois Maxwell
- Q - Desmond Llewelyn
- Chief of Staff Bill Tanner - James Villiers
- Melina Havelock - Carole Bouquet
- Milos Columbo - Topol
- Bibi Dahl - Lynn-Holly Johnson
- Aristotle Kristatos - Julian Glover
- Countess Lisl von Schlaf - Cassandra Harris
- Jacoba Brink - Jill Bennett
- Emile Leopold Locque - Michael Gothard
- Erich Kriegler - John Wyman
- General Gogol - Walter Gotell
- Rubelvitch (Gogol's Assistant) - Eva Rueber-Staier
- Directed by: John Glen
- Produced by: Albert R. Broccoli, Michael G. Wilson, Tom Pevsner
- Written by: Ian Fleming
- Screenplay by: Richard Maibaum, Michael G. Wilson
- Composed by: Bill Conti
- Cinematography by: Alan Hume
- Production design: Peter Lamont
The theme song was performed by Sheena Easton and she was the first artist in the film series' history to perform a Bond theme song on-screen during the Maurice Binder title sequence. Madonna would later one-up Easton by not only singing the theme song, but also appearing in a cameo role during the film. Bill Conti composed the soundtrack.
- For Your Eyes Only
- A Drive in the Country
- Take Me Home by Eddie Blair
- Melina's Revenge
- Gonzales Takes a Drive
- St. Cyril's Monastery
- Make It Last All Night by Rage
- For Your Eyes Only by Derek Watkins
- The P.M. Gets the Pird/For Your Eyes Only (Reprise) by Sheena Easton
- Gunbarrel/Flowers for Teresa/Sinking the St. Georges
- Unfinished Business/Bond Meets Kristatos
- Goodbye, Countess/No Head for Heights/Dining Alone
- Recovering the Atac
- Sub Vs. Sub
- Run Them Down/The Climb
Vehicles & gadgets
- ATAC - Automatic Targeting Attack Communicator, the ATAC was lost when the St. Georges was sunk.
- Lotus Esprit - this vehicle was cosmetically similar to the S2 used in The Spy Who Loved Me, but mechanically different, as it exhibited no submarine capabilities. It was most notable for its remarkable security system, which detonated and destroyed the car when Gonzales' henchman broke the driver's window in an attempt to break into the car. Q Branch was able to re-assemble the car - in burgundy instead of white - and return it to Bond for further use later in the movie.
- CitroŽn 2CV - A vehicle taken by Bond to make a "fast" getaway.
Comic book adaptation
Marvel Comics published a two-issue comic book adaptation of the For Your Eyes Only movie in 1981, written by Larry Hama with art by Vince Coletta with cover art by Howard Chaykin. It was also reprinted the same year in magazine and paperback book form.
- This is the only James Bond movie where M is absent. Bernard Lee had died while preparing for the film, and instead of recasting, the role was left vacant out of respect. Miss Moneypenny claims that he is on leave, and his chair is filled by his 'Chief of Staff' (it is unknown whether this character is supposed to be Bill Tanner or not), with M's lines being shared between the Chief of Staff and the Minister of Defence. The role was recast for Octopussy.
- The film marked a creative change of direction for the Bond films. John Glen was installed as director, a position he would occupy throughout the '80s, and a harder-edged direction was instituted, with less emphasis on gadgetry and large action sequences in huge arenas (as was favoured by Lewis Gilbert) and more emphasis on tension, plot, character, and returning Bond to his more serious roots (a good example of this is the scene where Bond kicks Locque's car over a cliff, murdering him in cold blood).
- Roger Moore was initially reluctant to return as Bond, and a short scene was duly scripted at the beginning of the film with Bond laying flowers at the grave of his wife to help introduce and establish a new actor. Moore eventually re-signed, but the scene was retained.
- Moore was strongly opposed to the aforementioned scene in which Bond kills Locque, claiming his Bond wouldn't do such a thing. This contradicts the fact that his Bond kills at least two, possibly three people in cold blood in the earlier film, The Spy Who Loved Me (namely, a thug Bond lets fall off a roof, the villain Stromberg who Bond executes after he's been disarmed, and possibly a woman who Bond may or may not intentionally use as a human shield). Nonetheless, this scene was the strongest display of Bond exercising his licence to kill since the killing of Dr. Dent by Sean Connery's Bond in Dr. No.
- Stuntman Paolo Rigon was killed during filming of the bobsled track portion of the ski chase.
- The film's main poster artwork, showcasing a model in shorts holding a crossbow with Bond framed between her long legs, was controversial in some parts of the world, with reports of the artwork being altered to remove what was considered indecent exposure.
- The scene in which Melina and Bond are dragged through the water for the sharks to eat was a sequence in the novel Live and Let Die.
- Many of the "underwater" scenes, especially involving closeups of Bond and Melina, were actually faked on a dry soundstage. A combination of lighting effects, slow-motion photography, wind, and "bubbles" added in post-production, gave the illusion of the actors being underwater. Apparently actress Carole Bouquet had a preexisting health condition that prevented her from actually attempting any underwater stuntwork.
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