Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Ford Duratec engine
|Engine Image Required|
|Production:||1993 – present|
|Valves:||8 (small cars) SOHC|
16 (4 cyl) DOHC
24 (V6) DOHC
48 (V12) DOHC
Variable valve timing (Mazda only)
|Configuration:||In-line 4 cylinder (up to 2.3 L)|
60 degree V6 (larger capacities)
V12 (6.0 L)
|Fuel Supply Method:||Electronic fuel injection or Direct injection, badged SCI|
Turbocharged (Focus RS)
|Also known as:||none|
|Also used by:||Aston Martin|
|This article is part of the automobile series.|
Now there are engines of all sizes called Duratec. In North America, Ford uses the Duratec name on all its dual overhead cam engines. In Europe, all Ford gasoline engines are called Duratec.
The Duratec HE is the name used by Ford of Europe for their family of small straight-4 and V6 petrol engines. The family includes 1.8 L and 2.0 L DOHC 16-valve engines and the 2.5 L V6 (also called the Duratec 25). European engines are built at Valencia Engine Plant in Spain.
Focus C-Max and Focus Mk. II versions are drive-by-wire throttle to improve responsiveness.
The 99P is a 2.0 L (1988 cc) version built in Dearborn, MI. Bore is 84.8 mm and stroke is 88 mm. It is used in the Ford Focus. Output is 110 hp (82 kW) at 5000 RPM with 130 ft.lbf (176 Nm) of torque at 5300 RPM. It has a cast iron engine block and aluminum SOHC cylinder heads. It uses SFI fuel injection, has roller followers, and features fracture-split forged powder metal connecting rods, a one-piece cast camshaft, and a cast aluminum or reinforced plastic intake manifold.
Another version is used in the US-market SVT Focus. Output is 170 hp (127 kW) at 7000 RPM with 145 ft.lbf (197 Nm) of torque at 5500 RPM.
The 1.8 L was the first European Ford to use direct injection technology, badged SCi for Smart Charge injection. This appeared in the Mondeo in 2003 and is today available on the 2.0 L engine as well as an expected 1.1 L version.
Beginning in 2004, Ford dropped the old 4-cylinder Zetec engines in favor of Mazda's MZR design. Thus, 2005+ Duratec 4 cylinder engines are Mazdas. This includes the 2.0 L Duratec 20 and 2.3 L Duratec 23.
The 993 is a 2.0 L (1988 cc) version built in Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Mexico. Bore is 84.8 mm and stroke is 88 mm. It is used in the Ford Escape and Focus. Output is 130 hp (97 kW) at 5300 RPM with 135 ft.lbf (183 Nm) of torque at 4500 RPM. It has an aluminum engine block and aluminum DOHC cylinder heads. The cylinders are lined with cast iron. It uses SFI fuel injection, has 4 valves per cylinder with VVT and features fracture-split forged powder metal connecting rods, a one-piece cast camshaft, and a cast aluminum or reinforced plastic intake manifold.
The Duratec 23 is a 2.3 L (2261 cc) version of the Mazda-designed Duratec 20. Bore is 87.4 mm and stroke is 94 mm. It has an aluminum engine block with cast iron cylinder liners and aluminum DOHC cylinder heads. It uses SFI fuel injection, has 4 valves per cylinder with VCT and features fracture-split forged powder metal connecting rods and a one-piece cast camshaft.
The Duratec 8v name is currently being used to label two totally different engines used in the European Ford Ka.
- The 1,3L Duratec 8V, 44 kW (60PS) is a renamed archaic Endura-E engine
- The 1,3L Duratec 8V, 51 kW (70PS) and the 1,6L Duratec 8V, 70 kW (95PS) are in fact the Brazilian built Zetec-Rocam engine.
All three V6 Duratecs are evolutions of the same design. It is a modern aluminum DOHC V6 with a 60° bank angle. The primary engineering input came from Porsche, who were developing a similar V6 before selling the engineering to Ford, and Cosworth, who helped with cylinder head manufacturing.
The Duratec 25 is a 2.5 L (2544cc) 60° V6 and was introduced in 1994. It was developed for the Ford Mondeo and used in the Ford Contour, Jaguar X-Type, and others. Bore is 82.4 mm and stroke is 79.5 mm.
The Duratec 25 was on the Ward's 10 Best Engines list for 1995 and 1996, and the SVT version made the list for 1998.
Duratec 25 SVT
An SVT version produced 195 hp (145 kW) and 165 ft.lbf (224 Nm). It included a larger throttle body from the Duratec 30, a new cone-shaped air filter, and extrude honing on the intake manifold. A lighter flywheel and low-restriction exhaust complete the picture. The SVT engine was used in the 1998 Ford Contour SVT.
The 2.5 L, 170 hp V6 used in Ford Mondeo is called Duratec VE.
Mazda used the Duratec 25 block and camshaft in their 2000 MPV. However, they reduced the size from 2.54 L to 2.49 L to keep under a 2.5 L tax cap in Japan. This was accomplished with a slightly-shorter stroke. The engine produced 170 hp at 6250 RPM and 165 ft.lbf (224 Nm) of torque. It was replaced in 2002 with the larger 3.0 L Duratec 30-based Mazda AJ.
Ford's standard DOHC V6 is known as the Duratec 30 or Mazda AJ. It was introduced in 1996 as a replacement for the 232 Essex in the Taurus/Sable, but the Duratec never matched the performance of the Essex. It has 3.0 L (2967 cc) of displacement and produces between 200 and 240 horsepower (150 and 180 kW). The same engine is used by the Jaguar S-Type, Lincoln LS, Mazda MPV, Mazda6, Mercury Mystique, and many other Ford vehicles. It is essentially a bored-out (to 88.9 mm) Duratec 25 and is built in Ford's Cleveland, OH #2 plant. A slightly modified version for the Ford Five Hundred entered production at the Cleveland, OH #1 plant in 2004.
It has an aluminum engine block and aluminum DOHC cylinder heads. The cylinders are lined with cast iron. It uses SFI fuel injection, has 4 valves per cylinder and features fracture-split forged powder metal connecting rods and an assembled cast aluminum intake manifold.
There are two key versions of the Duratec 30:
- DAMB - The Lincoln LS and Jaguar AJ30 versions have direct-acting mechanical bucket (DAMB) tappets. Output is 232 hp (173 kW) at 6750 RPM with 220 ft.lbf (298 Nm) of torque at 4500 RPM.
- RFF - The Taurus/Sable/Escape version uses roller finger followers (RFF) instead and produces 201 hp (150 kW) at 5900 RPM with 207 ft.lbf (281 Nm) of torque at 4400 RPM.
- 208 hp RFF
- 232 hp DAMB
- 2000-2005 Lincoln LS
- Jaguar AJ30 DAMB
Mazda's MZI version adds variable valve timing, as does Jaguar's AJ30. It displaces 2967 cc with an 89 mm bore and 79.5 mm stroke. Output (on the MPV) is 200 hp at 6200 RPM with 200 ft.lbf (271 Nm) of torque at 3000 RPM. Note that the MZI name is also used in Europe on Mazda's version of the Ford Sigma I4.
The 3.0 L, 226 hp V6 used in the Mondeo ST220 is called Duratec ST.
The 3.0 L, 204 hp V6 in the Mondeo Titanium is called Duratec SE.
The Duratec 35 (code-name Cyclone) is a new 3.5 L V6 that will appear in 2005. It is an all-aluminum engine based on the Duratec 30, and adds variable valve timing, a feature already found on the Jaguar AJ30 and Mazda AJ versions of the 3.0. Its displacement can be increased to 3.8 liters, meaning a Duratec 38 could come soon after.
The aluminum block is made by Teksid in Alabama, while the heads come from Nemak in Mexico, and the crankshaft comes from Bharat Forge of India. The engine will be assembled in Lima, Ohio, with expansion planned in Cleveland Engine Plant #1. Production begins in 2006. The Duratec 35 will replace the Duratec 30 in some applications (notably the Ford Five Hundred) by the end of that year, but the Duratec 30 will continue in production.
The new heads relocate all accessory drives to the front of the engine with a flush chain drive, saving space. The new combustion chambers are reshaped as well. Engine output could reach 300 hp (224 kW), but will probably be 250 hp (186 kW) for most applications, still a substantial upgrade in power from the Duratec 30.
The 6.0 L V12 used in Aston Martin cars is sometimes erroneously referred to as "essentially two 3.0 L V6 units bolted together". In reality, the engine is custom-built for Aston Martin by Cosworth Technology (both Aston Martin and Cosworth are owned by Ford) and while it uses some standard Duratec components, it is Cosworth's own design. Aston Martin use this engine in the DB7 Vantage, the V12 Vanquish and the DB9.
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