Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Ford Windsor engine
The Windsor engine is a 90-degree small-block V8 from Ford Motor Company. It was introduced in 1962, replacing the old Ford Y-block engine. Though not all of the engines in this family were produced at the Windsor, Ontario engine plant, the name stuck. It was replaced in 1995 with Ford's new 4.6 L modular V8 engine.
The first Windsor was the 221 in³ (3.6 L) in 1962. It used a 3.5 inch (89 mm) bore and produced 145 hp (108 kW). A later version was "stretched" to 240 cubic inches (3.9 L).
The 260 in³ (4.3 L) Windsor was introduced in 1963, and increased the bore to 3.8 inches (97 mm).
- 1964-1967 Sunbeam Tiger
The 289 in³ (4.7 L) Windsor was also introduced in 1963. It featured a 4 inch (102 mm) bore, the same as all future Windsors, and larger valves. This version was used in the Ford Mustang. With a 2-barrel carburetor, the 289 put out 195 hp (145 kW), but 225 hp (168 kW) was possible with a 4-barrel. Early versions prior to 1967 had a 5 bolt bellhousing pattern that was different than later 6 bolt units.
- 1966-1967 Sunbeam Tiger
Heavy-duty parts and a different cylinder head (with bigger valves and a smaller combustion chamber for higher compression) allowed the output of the 289 to increase to 271 hp (202 kW) in 1965. High-Performance Ford Mustangs in 1966 were sold with this engine. Carroll Shelby used the 289HP in the Shelby GT350 Mustang variant, though he upped the output to 305 hp (227 kW) with a less-restrictive intake and exhaust.
A stroked Windsor, at 302 in³ (4.9 L), was introduced in 1968. This engine was used in various Ford cars and trucks through early 2001. There were 2 and 4 barrel versions of this engine, and the 1968 Shelby GT350 used this engine. For 1968 only a special very high performance version of the 302 was also produced. Its main features included an angled cast iron high rise intake manifold and large port cast iron exhaust manifolds. The block was a high strength, high nickel content "hecho en Mexico" design with larger 2-bolt main caps. The heads were similar to the 289 HiPO K-code's with small, close tolerance pushrod holes. Emissions standards reduced the output of the 302 to just 140 hp (104 kW) in 1975, but modern technology brought the power back in the 1980s. Throttle body fuel injection first appeared on the Lincoln Continental in 1980, and was made standard on all applications in 1983. Electronic sequential fuel injection came in 1986.
The 302 was also offered for marine applications in both standard and reverse rotation setups.
The 5.0 was actually a 302 in³ (4949 cc) engine updated with the metric naming convention of the 1980s. This engine powered many rear wheel drive Ford cars, including the Crown Victoria and Mustang. It was replaced by the 4.6 L Ford Modular engine in the early 1990s.
- 1988-1992 Lincoln Continental Mark VII, 225 hp
- 1990 Lincoln Town Car, 150 hp
- 1998-2001 Ford Explorer
The last 5.0 L engine was produced at Cleveland Engine Plant #1 in December 2000, as part of a build ahead to supply Ford of Australia. They installed their last 5.0 L engine in a new vehicle in August 2002.
The 351 Windsor featured an even longer stroke thanks to a taller deck. It produced 250 hp (186 kW) with a 2 barrel carb or 290 hp (216 kW) with a 4 barrel. There were many other changes to this engine, including the intake, heads, rods, and firing order. Though the engine family is the same as the 289 and 302, and employs the same bell housing and head interchange as well as a few other small parts, the block itself is different. The block is taller and wider than other windsor small blocks, with larger main caps and thicker connecting rods. Also the distributor is slightly different to accommodate a larger oil pump shaft and larger oil pump.
The 351W was introduced for the 1969 year model rated at 250 hp (186 kW) with 2 barrel carb or 290 hp (216 kW) with a 4 barrel. The four barrel version actually produced 320 to 325 hp (239 to 242 kW). Though the 351 Cleveland was given higher power ratings, the 351W can be modified to run the same level of performance. The reduced performance was due to rather restricted airflow in the cylinder heads (the Cleveland heads were larger).
The Ford Boss 302 engine was a performance variant of the Windsor, putting Cleveland heads on the Windsor block to improve "breathing". It was installed in some Ford Mustangs in the early 1970s. The Boss 302 was conservatively rated at 290 hp (216 kW), but the engine could produce more than 310 hp (231 kW).
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